Risk factors for treatment failure of polymyxin B monotherapy for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections

Yanina Dubrovskaya, Ting Yi Chen, Marco R. Scipione, Diana Esaian, Michael S. Phillips, John Papadopoulos, Sapna A. Mehta

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31 Scopus citations

Abstract

Polymyxins are reserved for salvage therapy of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP). Though synergy has been demonstrated for the combination of polymyxins with carbapenems or tigecycline, in vitro synergy tests are nonstandardized, and the clinical effect of synergy remains unclear. This study describes outcomes for patients with CRKP infections who were treated with polymyxin B monotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with CRKP infections who received polymyxin B monotherapy from 2007 to 2011. Clinical, microbiology, and antimicrobial treatment data were collected. Risk factors for treatment failure were identified by logistic regression. Forty patients were included in the analysis. Twenty-nine of 40 (73%) patients achieved clinical cure as defined by clinician-documented improvement in signs and symptoms of infections, and 17/32 (53%) patients with follow-up culture data achieved microbiological cure. Endof- treatment mortality was 10%, and 30-day mortality was 28%. In a multivariate analysis, baseline renal insufficiency was associated with a 6.0-fold increase in clinical failure after adjusting for septic shock (odds ratio [OR]=6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.22 to 29.59). Breakthrough infections with organisms intrinsically resistant to polymyxins occurred in 3 patients during the treatment. Eighteen of 40 (45%) patients developed a new CRKP infection a median of 23 days after initial polymyxin B treatment, and 3 of these 18 infections were polymyxin resistant. The clinical cure rate achieved in this retrospective study was 73% of patients with CRKP infections treated with polymyxin B monotherapy. Baseline renal insufficiency was a risk factor for treatment failure after adjusting for septic shock. Breakthrough infections with organisms intrinsically resistant to polymyxin B and development of resistance to polymyxin B in subsequent CRKP isolates are of concern.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5394-5397
Number of pages4
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Volume57
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2013

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Dubrovskaya, Y., Chen, T. Y., Scipione, M. R., Esaian, D., Phillips, M. S., Papadopoulos, J., & Mehta, S. A. (2013). Risk factors for treatment failure of polymyxin B monotherapy for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 57(11), 5394-5397. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00510-13