Risk factors, pathogenesis, and strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma prevention: Emphasis on secondary prevention and its translational challenges

Shen Li, Antonio Saviano, Derek J. Erstad, Yujin Hoshida, Bryan C. Fuchs, Thomas Baumert, Kenneth K. Tanabe

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-associated mortality globally. Given the limited therapeutic efficacy in advanced HCC, prevention of HCC carcinogenesis could serve as an effective strategy. Patients with chronic fibrosis due to viral or metabolic etiologies are at a high risk of developing HCC. Primary prevention seeks to eliminate cancer predisposing risk factors while tertiary prevention aims to prevent HCC recurrence. Secondary prevention targets patients with baseline chronic liver disease. Various epidemiological and experimental studies have identified candidates for secondary prevention—both etiology-specific and generic prevention strategies—including statins, aspirin, and anti-diabetic drugs. The introduction of multi-cell based omics analysis along with better characterization of the hepatic microenvironment will further facilitate the identification of targets for prevention. In this review, we will summarize HCC risk factors, pathogenesis, and discuss strategies of HCC prevention. We will focus on secondary prevention and also discuss current challenges in translating experimental work into clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3817
Pages (from-to)1-31
Number of pages31
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Volume9
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Chemoprevention
  • Hepatitis
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • NASH

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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