Objectives. To assess the relationship of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) with both incidental and clinical carcinoma of the prostate. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed prostate histology in 48 men (group 1) who underwent surgical removal of the prostate for diagnoses other than prostate cancer, as well as in 64 men (group 2) who underwent radical prostatectomies. Both groups were assessed for the presence and extent of high-grade (HG-) PIN and compared with respect to patient age, Gleason score, and volume of prostate cancer. Results. HG-PIN was present in 40 of 48 (83%) group I cases. Forty-six percent of these cases (22 of 48) had incidental prostate cancer. Twenty-nine of 48 (60%) group I patients with HG-PIN had multifocal or extensive disease. Twenty of 22 (91%) incidental prostate cancers were present in 29 prostates with multifocal or extensive HG-PIN. In contrast, only 2 of 19 (11%) cases with absent to focal HG-PIN had prostate cancer. The association of multifocal or extensive HG-PIN with incidental prostate cancer was significant (P = 0.001); the relationships of extent of HG-PIN and cancer volume (P = 0.06) or high Gleason score (P = 0.017) were not significant. HG-PIN was present in 61 of 64 (95%) group 2 cases. The associations of extent of HG-PIN and cancer volume (P = 0.169) or high Gleason score (P = 0.156) were not significant. Conclusions. Both the low rate of incidental prostate cancer in specimens with absent to focal HG-PIN and the high rate of cancer in specimens with multifocal or extensive HG-PIN suggest that HG-PIN is a marker for concurrent prostate cancer and that the risk of concurrent prostate cancer is related to the volume of HG-PIN in the prostate gland.
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