Risk stratification in post-ERCP pancreatitis: How do procedures, patient characteristics and clinical indicators influence outcomes?

Kapil Kohli, Hrishikesh Samant, Kashif Khan, Sudha Pandit, Kelli Morgan, Urska Cvek, Phillip Kilgore, Marjan Trutschl, Eleni Mijalis, Paul Jordan, James Morris, Moheb Boktor, Jonathan Steven Alexander

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background. Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) remains common, and severe complications are associated with ERCP. There is no previous study detailing the effect of race and gender in a US-based population on risk of PEP. Methods. Data were collected on 269 “first-performed” consecutive ERCPs followed by division by race (White vs. African-American) and sex (Female vs. Male). A total of 53 probable risk factors were evaluated by uni- and multivariate analysis followed by outcomes expressed as an odds ratio (OR) (with a 95% confidence interval, 95% CI). Finally, a principal component analysis was performed to construct a risk prediction model for PEP, which can be used by clinicians at bedside. Results. After analyzing the risk factors based on race and gender-based groups, Caucasian males with PEP are more likely to have prior history of pancreatitis (p = 0.009), lower hemoglobin (p = 0.02)/blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (p = 0.01)/creatinine before ERCP (p = 0.07) and lower BUN (p = 0.01)/creatinine after ERCP (p = 0.07), while Caucasian females with PEP are more likely to have higher white blood cell (WBC) count before ERCP (p = 0.08) and lower amylase (p = 0.10)/bilirubin (p = 0.09)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST) after ERCP (p = 0.08). African-American males with PEP are more likely to have lower weight (p = 0.001)/smaller height (p = 0.0005)/lower alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.002)/AST (p = 0.04)/alanine transaminase (ALT) (p = 0.03) before ERCP and lower alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.002)/AST (p = 0.01)/ALT (p = 0.004) after ERCP, while African-American females with PEP are more likely to have prior history of pancreatitis (p = 0.004)/higher lipase before (p = 0.0001) and after (p = 0.05) ERCP along with increased risk with pancreatic duct cannulation (p = 0.0001) and injection (p = 0.0001)/biliary sphincterotomy (p = 0.0001). Importantly, prior history of ERCP, elevated AST after ERCP, and BUN prior to ERCP were found to be important clinical features predicting post-ERCP pancreatitis. To our knowledge, this is a first known attempt at developing a risk scoring system for PEP in a US population with decision tree learning. Conclusions. It is very evident that both patient and procedure-related risk factors vary by race and gender in the US population, leading to the development of a new risk assessment tool for PEP that can be used in clinical practice. We need to follow up with a larger prospective study to validate this novel race and gender-based risk scoring system for PEP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)76-85
Number of pages10
JournalPathophysiology
Volume28
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021

Keywords

  • ALT
  • AST
  • Bilirubin
  • ERCP
  • Lipase
  • Pancreatitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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