Introduction The aim was to evaluate the impact of obesity on perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing robotic pancreaticoduodenectomy (RPD) compared to open pancreaticoduodenectomy (OPD). Methods A retrospective review of all pancreaticoduodenectomies from 9/2011 to 4/2015 was performed. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2. Results Of 474 pancreaticoduodenectomies performed: RPD = 213 (45%) and OPD = 261 (55%). A total of 145 (31%) patients were obese (70 RPD, 75 OPD). Obese patients had increased EBL (p = 0.03), pancreatic fistula (B&C; p = 0.077), and wound infection (p = 0.068) compared to the non-obese. For obese patients, RPD had decreased OR time (p = 0.0003), EBL (p < 0.001), and wound infection (p = 0.001) with no difference in Clavien ≥3 complications, margins, LOS or 30-day mortality compared with OPD. In multivariate analysis, obesity was the strongest predictor of Clavien ≥3 (OR 1.6; p = 0.041) and wound infection if BMI > 35 (OR 2.6; p = 0.03). The robotic approach was protective of Clavien ≥3 (OR 0.6; p = 0.03) on univariate analysis and wound infection (OR 0.3; p < 0.001) and grade B/C pancreatic fistula (OR 0.34; p < 0.001) on multivariate analysis. Conclusions Obese patients are at risk for increased postoperative complications regardless of approach. However, the robotic approach mitigates some of the increased complication rate, while preserving other perioperative outcomes.
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