The demand for improved surgical performance and reduced health care costs have led to the evaluation of surgical robotic systems. Robotic devices to assist urologists with transurethral resection of the prostate, percutaneous renal access, and laparoscopy are currently in development or are already in clinical use. The rapid advances made in telecommunication technology also have allowed for the development of telesurgical systems that permit surgeons to participate in surgery from a remote location. In the twenty-first century, surgical robots will be efficient, invaluable, and safe adjuncts to urologic practice.
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