Role of fibroblast growth factor in squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder: Prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target

Ramy F. Youssef, Payal Kapur, Ahmed Mosbah, Hassan Abol-Enein, Mohamed Ghoneim, Yair Lotan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations


Background: We evaluated the association of fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) expression with pathologic features and clinical outcomes of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary bladder. Methods: Immunohistochemistry of FGF2 was performed on radical cystectomy specimens with pure SCC from 1997 to 2003. The relationship between FGF2 and pathologic parameters and oncological outcome was assessed. Results: The study included 151 patients with SCC (98 men) with a median age of 52 years (range: 36-74. y). Schistosomal infection was found in 81% of patients. Pathologic category was T2 and T3 in 88% of patients and the grade was low in>50%. Lymph node invasion and lymphovascular invasion were found in 30.5% and 16%. Altered FGF2 was associated with tumor grade (P = 0.014), lymph node invasion, and lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.042). Altered FGF2 was associated with both disease recurrence and cancer-specific mortality (P≤0.001) in Kaplan-Meier analyses and was an independent predictor of cancer recurrence (hazard ratio = 2.561, P = 0. 009) and cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio = 2.679, P = 0. 033) in multivariate Cox regression analyses. Adding FGF2 to a model including standard clinicopathologic prognostics (pathologic T category, lymph node status, and grade) showed a significant improvement (6%) in accuracy of prediction poor oncological outcome. Conclusions: FGF2 overexpression is associated with aggressive pathologic features and worse outcomes after radical cystectomy for SCC, suggesting a good prognostic and possible therapeutic role.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)111.e1-111.e7
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2015



  • Biomarkers
  • Bladder cancer
  • FGF2
  • Squamous cell carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology

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