The pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is not clear. The most important risk factors for developing AMD are age, race, and smoking. Genetics, inflammation, and oxidative stress have all been suggested to play a role. The retina is rich in oxygen, free radicals, polyunsaturated fatty acid, and photoactive substances such as lipofuscin, and is exposed to high levels of visible irradiation. Aging is associated with increased oxidative injury. Lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin formation is also increased with aging. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a product of lipid peroxidation and can be used as a biomarker for oxidative stress. In this chapter, we summarize the available evidence of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of AMD. In addition, we have demonstrated that high levels of MDA were present in patients with AMD compared to patients without AMD. This suggests that lipid peroxidation-induced oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of AMD.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)