Schnyder corneal dystrophy-associated UBIAD1 is defective in MK-4 synthesis and resists autophagy-mediated degradation

Dong Jae Jun, Marc M. Schumacher, Seonghwan Hwang, Lisa N. Kinch, Nick V. Grishin, Russell A. DeBose-Boyd

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The autosomal dominant disorder Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) is caused by mutations in UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein-1 (UBIAD1), which uses geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGpp) to synthesize the vitamin K2 subtype menaquinone-4 (MK-4). SCD is characterized by opacification of the cornea, owing to aberrant build-up of cholesterol in the tissue. We previously discovered that sterols stimulate association of UBIAD1 with ER-localized HMG-CoA reductase, which catalyzes a rate-limiting step in the synthesis of cholesterol and nonsterol isoprenoids, including GGpp. Binding to UBIAD1 inhibits sterol-accelerated ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of reductase and permits continued synthesis of GGpp in cholesterol-replete cells. GGpp disrupts UBIAD1-reductase binding and thereby allows for maximal ERAD of reductase as well as ER-to-Golgi translocation of UBIAD1. SCD-associated UBIAD1 is refractory to GGpp-mediated dissociation from reductase and remains sequestered in the ER to inhibit ERAD. Here, we report development of a biochemical assay for UBIAD1-mediated synthesis of MK-4 in isolated membranes and intact cells. Using this assay, we compared enzymatic activity of WT UBIAD1 with that of SCD-associated variants. Our studies revealed that SCD-associated UBIAD1 exhibited reduced MK-4 synthetic activity, which may result from its reduced affinity for GGpp. Sequestration in the ER protects SCD-associated UBIAD1 from autophagy and allows intracellular accumulation of the mutant protein, which amplifies the inhibitory effect on reductase ERAD. These findings have important implications not only for the understanding of SCD etiology but also for the efficacy of cholesterol-lowering statin therapy, which becomes limited, in part, because of UBIAD1-mediated inhibition of reductase ERAD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)746-757
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of lipid research
Volume61
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2020

Keywords

  • Cholesterol
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Menaquinone-4
  • UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein-1
  • Vesicular transport

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Cell Biology

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