Separating High-Z Oral Contrast From Intravascular Iodine Contrast in an Animal Model Using Dual-Layer Spectral CT

Todd C. Soesbe, Matthew A. Lewis, Khaled Nasr, Lakshmi Ananthakrishnan, Robert E. Lenkinski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Rationale and Objectives: To show that water and iodine two-material decomposition images from dual-layer dual-energy spectral X-ray computed tomography (DECT) can be used to separate intravascular iodine contrast from simultaneously administered oral tantalum, tungsten, or rhenium contrast in an animal model. Materials and Methods: In this Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved study, four female Fischer rats were given simultaneous intravenous and oral X-ray computed tomography contrast. Intravenous iodine contrast was administered via tail vein injection. Oral barium, tantalum, tungsten, or rhenium contrast was administered via gavage. The animals were imaged on a dual-layer DECT system at 120 kVp. Water and iodine two-material decomposition images (water equivalent and iodine equivalent images) were used for qualitative analysis. Computer simulations were performed using a customized DECT simulator to better understand why certain high-Z elements disappear in the iodine equivalent images and what is the theoretical range of elements with this property. Results: The iodine and barium contrast appeared only in the iodine equivalent images and could not be differentiated from each other. However, the tantalum, tungsten, and rhenium contrast only appeared in the water equivalent images. This allowed iodine contrast in the bowel wall to be easily segmented from tantalum, tungsten, and rhenium contrast in the bowel lumen. Simulations confirmed that certain high-Z elements will have pixel values of ≤0 mg iodine/mL in the iodine equivalent images due to a K-edge effect associated with DECT systems. Conclusions: Dual-layer DECT can separate iodine from certain high-Z elements using water equivalent and iodine equivalent images with an increased element range compared to other DECT systems. This K-edge effect could promote the development and approval of new high-Z contrast agents for DECT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAcademic Radiology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Iodine
Animal Models
Tantalum
Rhenium
Tungsten
Water
X Ray Computed Tomography
Barium
Animal Care Committees
Inbred F344 Rats
Computer Simulation
Contrast Media
Tail
Veins

Keywords

  • Dual-contrast agents
  • Dual-energy CT
  • Dual-layer CT
  • High-Z contrast agents
  • Material separation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

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title = "Separating High-Z Oral Contrast From Intravascular Iodine Contrast in an Animal Model Using Dual-Layer Spectral CT",
abstract = "Rationale and Objectives: To show that water and iodine two-material decomposition images from dual-layer dual-energy spectral X-ray computed tomography (DECT) can be used to separate intravascular iodine contrast from simultaneously administered oral tantalum, tungsten, or rhenium contrast in an animal model. Materials and Methods: In this Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved study, four female Fischer rats were given simultaneous intravenous and oral X-ray computed tomography contrast. Intravenous iodine contrast was administered via tail vein injection. Oral barium, tantalum, tungsten, or rhenium contrast was administered via gavage. The animals were imaged on a dual-layer DECT system at 120 kVp. Water and iodine two-material decomposition images (water equivalent and iodine equivalent images) were used for qualitative analysis. Computer simulations were performed using a customized DECT simulator to better understand why certain high-Z elements disappear in the iodine equivalent images and what is the theoretical range of elements with this property. Results: The iodine and barium contrast appeared only in the iodine equivalent images and could not be differentiated from each other. However, the tantalum, tungsten, and rhenium contrast only appeared in the water equivalent images. This allowed iodine contrast in the bowel wall to be easily segmented from tantalum, tungsten, and rhenium contrast in the bowel lumen. Simulations confirmed that certain high-Z elements will have pixel values of ≤0 mg iodine/mL in the iodine equivalent images due to a K-edge effect associated with DECT systems. Conclusions: Dual-layer DECT can separate iodine from certain high-Z elements using water equivalent and iodine equivalent images with an increased element range compared to other DECT systems. This K-edge effect could promote the development and approval of new high-Z contrast agents for DECT.",
keywords = "Dual-contrast agents, Dual-energy CT, Dual-layer CT, High-Z contrast agents, Material separation",
author = "Soesbe, {Todd C.} and Lewis, {Matthew A.} and Khaled Nasr and Lakshmi Ananthakrishnan and Lenkinski, {Robert E.}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
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doi = "10.1016/j.acra.2018.09.012",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Academic Radiology",
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T1 - Separating High-Z Oral Contrast From Intravascular Iodine Contrast in an Animal Model Using Dual-Layer Spectral CT

AU - Soesbe, Todd C.

AU - Lewis, Matthew A.

AU - Nasr, Khaled

AU - Ananthakrishnan, Lakshmi

AU - Lenkinski, Robert E.

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Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Rationale and Objectives: To show that water and iodine two-material decomposition images from dual-layer dual-energy spectral X-ray computed tomography (DECT) can be used to separate intravascular iodine contrast from simultaneously administered oral tantalum, tungsten, or rhenium contrast in an animal model. Materials and Methods: In this Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved study, four female Fischer rats were given simultaneous intravenous and oral X-ray computed tomography contrast. Intravenous iodine contrast was administered via tail vein injection. Oral barium, tantalum, tungsten, or rhenium contrast was administered via gavage. The animals were imaged on a dual-layer DECT system at 120 kVp. Water and iodine two-material decomposition images (water equivalent and iodine equivalent images) were used for qualitative analysis. Computer simulations were performed using a customized DECT simulator to better understand why certain high-Z elements disappear in the iodine equivalent images and what is the theoretical range of elements with this property. Results: The iodine and barium contrast appeared only in the iodine equivalent images and could not be differentiated from each other. However, the tantalum, tungsten, and rhenium contrast only appeared in the water equivalent images. This allowed iodine contrast in the bowel wall to be easily segmented from tantalum, tungsten, and rhenium contrast in the bowel lumen. Simulations confirmed that certain high-Z elements will have pixel values of ≤0 mg iodine/mL in the iodine equivalent images due to a K-edge effect associated with DECT systems. Conclusions: Dual-layer DECT can separate iodine from certain high-Z elements using water equivalent and iodine equivalent images with an increased element range compared to other DECT systems. This K-edge effect could promote the development and approval of new high-Z contrast agents for DECT.

AB - Rationale and Objectives: To show that water and iodine two-material decomposition images from dual-layer dual-energy spectral X-ray computed tomography (DECT) can be used to separate intravascular iodine contrast from simultaneously administered oral tantalum, tungsten, or rhenium contrast in an animal model. Materials and Methods: In this Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved study, four female Fischer rats were given simultaneous intravenous and oral X-ray computed tomography contrast. Intravenous iodine contrast was administered via tail vein injection. Oral barium, tantalum, tungsten, or rhenium contrast was administered via gavage. The animals were imaged on a dual-layer DECT system at 120 kVp. Water and iodine two-material decomposition images (water equivalent and iodine equivalent images) were used for qualitative analysis. Computer simulations were performed using a customized DECT simulator to better understand why certain high-Z elements disappear in the iodine equivalent images and what is the theoretical range of elements with this property. Results: The iodine and barium contrast appeared only in the iodine equivalent images and could not be differentiated from each other. However, the tantalum, tungsten, and rhenium contrast only appeared in the water equivalent images. This allowed iodine contrast in the bowel wall to be easily segmented from tantalum, tungsten, and rhenium contrast in the bowel lumen. Simulations confirmed that certain high-Z elements will have pixel values of ≤0 mg iodine/mL in the iodine equivalent images due to a K-edge effect associated with DECT systems. Conclusions: Dual-layer DECT can separate iodine from certain high-Z elements using water equivalent and iodine equivalent images with an increased element range compared to other DECT systems. This K-edge effect could promote the development and approval of new high-Z contrast agents for DECT.

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