Objectives: This study sought to investigate changes in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ventricular volumes and vascular dimensions before hemi-Fontan (HF) and before total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) in children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). Background: The systemic right ventricle (RV) in HLHS is subject to significant changes in volume loading throughout the surgical stages of palliation, particularly after the HF. Methods: Fifty-eight patients had paired pre-HF and pre-TCPC MRI for assessment of changes of RV volumes, neoaortic flow, and vascular dimensions. Results: Comparison of pre-HF and pre-TCPC MRI results showed a decrease of indexed RV end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume (98 ml/m2 to 87 ml/m2 and 50 ml/m2 to 36 ml/m2, respectively) with stroke volume remaining constant (49 ml/m2 vs. 51 ml/m2), leading to an increased RV ejection fraction (51% vs. 59%). These findings persisted after excluding the 3 patients who underwent tricuspid valve repair as part of their HF procedure. Indexed RV end-diastolic volume plotted against neoaortic stroke volume demonstrated a Frank-Starling-like curve that shifted upward after HF. The indexed distal left and right cross-sectional pulmonary artery areas were reduced after HF. Conclusions: In HLHS, serial MRI shows the adaptation of the systemic RV after HF with volume reduction in the context of a preserved stroke volume and an increased ejection fraction. The staged palliation in HLHS may be a risk factor particularly for reduced left pulmonary artery growth in itself as no factors investigated in this study were found to significantly impact on this.
- Norwood procedure
- hemi-Fontan operation
- hypoplastic left heart syndrome
- magnetic resonance imaging
- remodeling of systemic right ventricle
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine