Sex differences in the distribution of EEG frequencies during sleep: unipolar depressed outpatients

Roseanne Armitage, Angela Hudson, Madhukar Trivedi, A. John Rush

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Scopus citations


Sex differences in period-amplitude-analysed (PAA) sleep EEG activity were evaluated in 20 symptomatic, unmedicated, unipolar, depressed outpatients. 19 20 PAA measures showed significant gender main effects or interactions. Overall, depressed females showed a higher incidence and amplitude of fast frequency, beta activity than males, particularly in the right hemisphere. Moreover, gender effects were also evident in sleep-stage-independent analysis of PAA measures. These findings are in striking contrast to normal controls for whom only slow-frequency activity differentiates males from females. These findings suggest that sex differences are stronger in depressed patients than those observed in normals and that these effects are more pronounced than age-related changes in sleep EEG activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)121-129
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of affective disorders
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 17 1995



  • Computer analysis
  • Depression
  • Gender
  • Period-amplitude analysis
  • Sleep EEG

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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