PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate contemporary sex-specific differences in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) by reviewing diagnostic considerations, clinicopathologic features, oncologic outcomes, environmental exposures, and regional variation in UTUC by sex. RECENT FINDINGS: Although some contemporary studies implicate sex-based differences in UTUC, the literature concerning the effect of sex on clinicopathologic features and oncologic outcomes in UTUC reveals mixed findings. Factors accounting for the time to diagnosis in UTUC seem to differ between men and women. The epidemiology and outcomes of UTUC are largely influenced by geographic variation in the disease, which may be due to differences in exposure to environmental risk factors. Sex-based variations and potential differences in disease biology remain to be elucidated. SUMMARY: A global consensus on the effect of sex on clinicopathologic characteristics and oncologic outcomes in UTUC has not been established definitively. Review of this topic does, however, shed light on important considerations given differences in the time to diagnosis, risk factors, and regional variation by sex. Further studies evaluating genetic, anatomic, physiologic, and socioeconomic differences between men and women with UTUC may provide further insight into understanding the effect of sex in UTUC.
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