Increasing data suggest that there are sex differences in ventricular and vascular adaptations to aerobic (endurance) exercise, which may be attributed to different physical and physiological features in men and women. Despite that cardiovascular control during acute exercise at the same relative work rate (e.g., the percentage of peak oxygen uptake) appears to be similar between the sexes, women have blunted responses or adaptations to prolonged (e.g., ≥1 year) exercise training compared with men. Currently, there is little evidence to suggest that exercise-induced vascular adaptations are different between men and women. Furthermore, sex differences in skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise, and how this influences cardiovascular function, remain unclear. Identifying potential differences and the mechanisms behind such exercise-induced adaptations is important for the optimization of exercise interventions between men and women across the life span.