Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of progressive neurological disability in young adults. In addition to spasticity, tremors, weakness, sensory disturbances, depression, cognitive problems, and bladder or bowel dysfunction, sexual dysfunction (SD) is also a prevalent and destructive manifestation of the disease that severely affects quality of life. Evaluation of this disorder requires insight into the primary (changes that directly affect libido, sexual response and orgasm due to direct damage to the nervous system), secondary (complaints which are related to the physical disability of MS, such as fatigue, muscle rigidity, weakness and spasms), and tertiary (emotional, social and cultural aspects of MS) components of MS-associated SD. Given the complexity and multifactorial nature of SD, a multidisciplinary approach is necessary when treating patients with MS. The aim of this Review is to provide a holistic approach to the evaluation and management of SD in patients with MS, incorporating the latest data from the fields of urology, neurology, nursing, social work, and psychology. What is currently known regarding the evaluation and management of SD in patients with MS will be presented from the perspective of these specialties.
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