Short-term modulation of the ventilatory response to exercise is preserved in obstructive sleep apnea

Vipa Bernhardt, Gordon S. Mitchell, Won Y. Lee, Tony G. Babb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background The ventilatory response to exercise can be transiently adjusted in response to environmentally (e.g., breathing apparatus) or physiologically altered conditions (e.g., respiratory disease), maintaining constant relative arterial PCO2 regulation from rest to exercise (Mitchell and Babb, 2006); this augmentation is called short-term modulation (STM) of the exercise ventilatory response. Obesity and/or obstructive sleep apnea could affect the exercise ventilatory response and the capacity for STM due to chronically increased mechanical and/or ventilatory loads on the respiratory system, and/or recurrent (chronic) intermittent hypoxia experienced during sleep. We hypothesized that: (1) the exercise ventilatory response is augmented in obese OSA patients compared with obese non-OSA adults, and (2) the capacity for STM with added dead space is diminished in obese OSA patients. Methods Nine obese adults with OSA (age: 39 ± 6 yr, BMI: 40 ± 5 kg/m2, AHI: 25 ± 24 events/h [range 6–73], mean ± SD) and 8 obese adults without OSA (age: 38 ± 10 yr, BMI: 37 ± 6 kg/m2, AHI: 1 ± 2) completed three, 20-min bouts of constant-load submaximal cycling exercise (8 min rest, 6 min at 10 and 30 W) with or without added external dead space (200 or 400 mL; 20 min rest between bouts). Steady-state measurements were made of ventilation (V˙E), oxygen consumption V˙O2), carbon dioxide production (V˙CO2), and end-tidal PCO2 (PETCO2). The exercise ventilatory response was defined as the slope of the V˙E-V˙CO2 relationship (ΔV˙E/ΔV˙CO2). Results In control (i.e. no added dead space), the exercise ventilatory response was not significantly different between non-OSA and OSA groups (ΔV˙E/ΔV˙CO2 slope: 30.5 ± 4.2 vs 30.5 ± 3.8, p > 0.05); PETCO2 regulation from rest to exercise did not differ between groups (p > 0.05). In trials with added external dead space, ΔV˙E/ΔV˙CO2 increased with increased dead space (p < 0.05) and the PETCO2 change from rest to exercise remained small (<2 mmHg) in both groups, demonstrating STM. There were no significant differences between groups. Conclusions Contrary to our hypotheses: (1) the exercise ventilatory response is not increased in obese OSA patients compared with obese non-OSA adults, and (2) the capacity for STM with added dead space is preserved in obese OSA and non-OSA adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)42-50
Number of pages9
JournalRespiratory Physiology and Neurobiology
Volume236
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017

Fingerprint

Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Exercise
Ventilation
Carbon Dioxide
Oxygen Consumption
Respiratory System
Sleep
Respiration
Obesity

Keywords

  • Obesity
  • Obesity hypoventilation syndrome
  • P
  • Sleep apnea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Physiology
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Cite this

Short-term modulation of the ventilatory response to exercise is preserved in obstructive sleep apnea. / Bernhardt, Vipa; Mitchell, Gordon S.; Lee, Won Y.; Babb, Tony G.

In: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, Vol. 236, 01.02.2017, p. 42-50.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{8123165cbf684ba38bd8e39718a81828,
title = "Short-term modulation of the ventilatory response to exercise is preserved in obstructive sleep apnea",
abstract = "Background The ventilatory response to exercise can be transiently adjusted in response to environmentally (e.g., breathing apparatus) or physiologically altered conditions (e.g., respiratory disease), maintaining constant relative arterial PCO2 regulation from rest to exercise (Mitchell and Babb, 2006); this augmentation is called short-term modulation (STM) of the exercise ventilatory response. Obesity and/or obstructive sleep apnea could affect the exercise ventilatory response and the capacity for STM due to chronically increased mechanical and/or ventilatory loads on the respiratory system, and/or recurrent (chronic) intermittent hypoxia experienced during sleep. We hypothesized that: (1) the exercise ventilatory response is augmented in obese OSA patients compared with obese non-OSA adults, and (2) the capacity for STM with added dead space is diminished in obese OSA patients. Methods Nine obese adults with OSA (age: 39 ± 6 yr, BMI: 40 ± 5 kg/m2, AHI: 25 ± 24 events/h [range 6–73], mean ± SD) and 8 obese adults without OSA (age: 38 ± 10 yr, BMI: 37 ± 6 kg/m2, AHI: 1 ± 2) completed three, 20-min bouts of constant-load submaximal cycling exercise (8 min rest, 6 min at 10 and 30 W) with or without added external dead space (200 or 400 mL; 20 min rest between bouts). Steady-state measurements were made of ventilation (V˙E), oxygen consumption V˙O2), carbon dioxide production (V˙CO2), and end-tidal PCO2 (PETCO2). The exercise ventilatory response was defined as the slope of the V˙E-V˙CO2 relationship (ΔV˙E/ΔV˙CO2). Results In control (i.e. no added dead space), the exercise ventilatory response was not significantly different between non-OSA and OSA groups (ΔV˙E/ΔV˙CO2 slope: 30.5 ± 4.2 vs 30.5 ± 3.8, p > 0.05); PETCO2 regulation from rest to exercise did not differ between groups (p > 0.05). In trials with added external dead space, ΔV˙E/ΔV˙CO2 increased with increased dead space (p < 0.05) and the PETCO2 change from rest to exercise remained small (<2 mmHg) in both groups, demonstrating STM. There were no significant differences between groups. Conclusions Contrary to our hypotheses: (1) the exercise ventilatory response is not increased in obese OSA patients compared with obese non-OSA adults, and (2) the capacity for STM with added dead space is preserved in obese OSA and non-OSA adults.",
keywords = "Obesity, Obesity hypoventilation syndrome, P, Sleep apnea",
author = "Vipa Bernhardt and Mitchell, {Gordon S.} and Lee, {Won Y.} and Babb, {Tony G.}",
year = "2017",
month = "2",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.resp.2016.11.003",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "236",
pages = "42--50",
journal = "Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology",
issn = "1569-9048",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Short-term modulation of the ventilatory response to exercise is preserved in obstructive sleep apnea

AU - Bernhardt, Vipa

AU - Mitchell, Gordon S.

AU - Lee, Won Y.

AU - Babb, Tony G.

PY - 2017/2/1

Y1 - 2017/2/1

N2 - Background The ventilatory response to exercise can be transiently adjusted in response to environmentally (e.g., breathing apparatus) or physiologically altered conditions (e.g., respiratory disease), maintaining constant relative arterial PCO2 regulation from rest to exercise (Mitchell and Babb, 2006); this augmentation is called short-term modulation (STM) of the exercise ventilatory response. Obesity and/or obstructive sleep apnea could affect the exercise ventilatory response and the capacity for STM due to chronically increased mechanical and/or ventilatory loads on the respiratory system, and/or recurrent (chronic) intermittent hypoxia experienced during sleep. We hypothesized that: (1) the exercise ventilatory response is augmented in obese OSA patients compared with obese non-OSA adults, and (2) the capacity for STM with added dead space is diminished in obese OSA patients. Methods Nine obese adults with OSA (age: 39 ± 6 yr, BMI: 40 ± 5 kg/m2, AHI: 25 ± 24 events/h [range 6–73], mean ± SD) and 8 obese adults without OSA (age: 38 ± 10 yr, BMI: 37 ± 6 kg/m2, AHI: 1 ± 2) completed three, 20-min bouts of constant-load submaximal cycling exercise (8 min rest, 6 min at 10 and 30 W) with or without added external dead space (200 or 400 mL; 20 min rest between bouts). Steady-state measurements were made of ventilation (V˙E), oxygen consumption V˙O2), carbon dioxide production (V˙CO2), and end-tidal PCO2 (PETCO2). The exercise ventilatory response was defined as the slope of the V˙E-V˙CO2 relationship (ΔV˙E/ΔV˙CO2). Results In control (i.e. no added dead space), the exercise ventilatory response was not significantly different between non-OSA and OSA groups (ΔV˙E/ΔV˙CO2 slope: 30.5 ± 4.2 vs 30.5 ± 3.8, p > 0.05); PETCO2 regulation from rest to exercise did not differ between groups (p > 0.05). In trials with added external dead space, ΔV˙E/ΔV˙CO2 increased with increased dead space (p < 0.05) and the PETCO2 change from rest to exercise remained small (<2 mmHg) in both groups, demonstrating STM. There were no significant differences between groups. Conclusions Contrary to our hypotheses: (1) the exercise ventilatory response is not increased in obese OSA patients compared with obese non-OSA adults, and (2) the capacity for STM with added dead space is preserved in obese OSA and non-OSA adults.

AB - Background The ventilatory response to exercise can be transiently adjusted in response to environmentally (e.g., breathing apparatus) or physiologically altered conditions (e.g., respiratory disease), maintaining constant relative arterial PCO2 regulation from rest to exercise (Mitchell and Babb, 2006); this augmentation is called short-term modulation (STM) of the exercise ventilatory response. Obesity and/or obstructive sleep apnea could affect the exercise ventilatory response and the capacity for STM due to chronically increased mechanical and/or ventilatory loads on the respiratory system, and/or recurrent (chronic) intermittent hypoxia experienced during sleep. We hypothesized that: (1) the exercise ventilatory response is augmented in obese OSA patients compared with obese non-OSA adults, and (2) the capacity for STM with added dead space is diminished in obese OSA patients. Methods Nine obese adults with OSA (age: 39 ± 6 yr, BMI: 40 ± 5 kg/m2, AHI: 25 ± 24 events/h [range 6–73], mean ± SD) and 8 obese adults without OSA (age: 38 ± 10 yr, BMI: 37 ± 6 kg/m2, AHI: 1 ± 2) completed three, 20-min bouts of constant-load submaximal cycling exercise (8 min rest, 6 min at 10 and 30 W) with or without added external dead space (200 or 400 mL; 20 min rest between bouts). Steady-state measurements were made of ventilation (V˙E), oxygen consumption V˙O2), carbon dioxide production (V˙CO2), and end-tidal PCO2 (PETCO2). The exercise ventilatory response was defined as the slope of the V˙E-V˙CO2 relationship (ΔV˙E/ΔV˙CO2). Results In control (i.e. no added dead space), the exercise ventilatory response was not significantly different between non-OSA and OSA groups (ΔV˙E/ΔV˙CO2 slope: 30.5 ± 4.2 vs 30.5 ± 3.8, p > 0.05); PETCO2 regulation from rest to exercise did not differ between groups (p > 0.05). In trials with added external dead space, ΔV˙E/ΔV˙CO2 increased with increased dead space (p < 0.05) and the PETCO2 change from rest to exercise remained small (<2 mmHg) in both groups, demonstrating STM. There were no significant differences between groups. Conclusions Contrary to our hypotheses: (1) the exercise ventilatory response is not increased in obese OSA patients compared with obese non-OSA adults, and (2) the capacity for STM with added dead space is preserved in obese OSA and non-OSA adults.

KW - Obesity

KW - Obesity hypoventilation syndrome

KW - P

KW - Sleep apnea

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84998893234&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84998893234&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.resp.2016.11.003

DO - 10.1016/j.resp.2016.11.003

M3 - Article

VL - 236

SP - 42

EP - 50

JO - Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology

JF - Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology

SN - 1569-9048

ER -