Critical-sized bone defects are challenging to heal because of the sudden and large volume of lost bone. Fixative plates are often used to stabilize defects, yet oxidative stress and delayed angiogenesis are contributing factors to poor biocompatibility and delayed bone healing. This study tests the angiogenic and antioxidant properties of amorphous silicon oxynitrophosphide (SiONPx) nanoscale-coating material on endothelial cells to regenerate vascular tissue in vitro and in bone defects. in vitro studies evaluate the effect of silicon oxynitride (SiONx) and two different SiONPx compositions on human endothelial cells exposed to ROS (eg, hydrogen peroxide) that simulates oxidative stress conditions. in vivo studies using adult male Sprague Dawley rats (approximately 450 g) were performed to compare a bare plate, a SiONPx-coated implant plate, and a sham control group using a rat standard-sized calvarial defect. Results from this study showed that plates coated with SiONPx significantly reduced cell death, and enhanced vascular tubule formation and matrix deposition by upregulating angiogenic and antioxidant expression (eg, vascular endothelial growth factor A, angiopoetin-1, superoxide dismutase 1, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, and catalase 1). Moreover, endothelial cell markers (CD31) showed a significant tubular structure in the SiONPx coating group compared with an empty and uncoated plate group. This reveals that atomic doping of phosphate into the nanoscale coating of SiONx produced markedly elevated levels of antioxidant and angiogenic markers that enhance vascular tissue regeneration. This study found that SiONPx or SiONx nanoscale-coated materials enhance antioxidant expression, angiogenic marker expression, and reduce ROS levels needed for accelerating vascular tissue regeneration. These results further suggest that SiONPx nanoscale coating could be a promising candidate for titanium plate for rapid and enhanced cranial bone-defect healing.
- AMORPHOUS SILICON OXYNITROPHOSPHIDE
- BONE HEALING
- OXIDATIVE STRESS
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine