Similarity of urinary risk factors among stone-forming patients in five regions of the United States.

J. A. Harvey, K. D. Hill, C. Y. Pak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Study Objective: To compare urinary biochemical risk factors among stone-forming patients in the Southeast (SE) or "stone belt" versus four other regions of the United States. Design: Prospective biochemical survey for regional comparisons. Setting: Referral-based nephrolithiasis clinics, urologists, nephrologists, and family practitioners. Patients: Consecutive sample of 3473 stone-forming patients who submitted 24-hour urine collections for biochemical analyses of stone-forming risk factors. Interventions: None. Subjects taking medication known to interfere with stone-forming risk factors were deleted from the final data compilation. Measurements and Main Results: Overall, the mean values for each urinary parameter spanned a narrow range without significant difference between the five regions. Among "metabolic" factors, 40% in the SE had hypercalciuria (> 6.25 mmol/d), compared to 35%-43% in other regions, and hyperuricosuria (> 4.2 mmol/d) was found in 16% in the SE versus 17%-19% elsewhere. Among "environmental" factors, low urine volume ( < 2 L/d) was found in 77% patients in the SE compared to 69%-78% elsewhere, and high sodium was encountered in 27% in the SE versus 24%-29% elsewhere. No differences were noted in occurrence of other abnormal risk factors: hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, low pH, high sulfate, high phosphorus, or low magnesium. Conclusions: Despite expected regional differences in nutritional and environmental influences, the results of this study showed a striking similarity in urinary biochemical risk factor profiles of stone-formers in all five regions of the United States.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)124-132
Number of pages9
JournalThe Journal of lithotripsy & stone disease
Volume2
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1990

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Hyperoxaluria
Hypercalciuria
Nephrolithiasis
Urine Specimen Collection
Phosphorus
Magnesium
Sulfates
Referral and Consultation
Sodium
Urine
Urologists
Nephrologists
Surveys and Questionnaires

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Similarity of urinary risk factors among stone-forming patients in five regions of the United States. / Harvey, J. A.; Hill, K. D.; Pak, C. Y.

In: The Journal of lithotripsy & stone disease, Vol. 2, No. 2, 04.1990, p. 124-132.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Study Objective: To compare urinary biochemical risk factors among stone-forming patients in the Southeast (SE) or {"}stone belt{"} versus four other regions of the United States. Design: Prospective biochemical survey for regional comparisons. Setting: Referral-based nephrolithiasis clinics, urologists, nephrologists, and family practitioners. Patients: Consecutive sample of 3473 stone-forming patients who submitted 24-hour urine collections for biochemical analyses of stone-forming risk factors. Interventions: None. Subjects taking medication known to interfere with stone-forming risk factors were deleted from the final data compilation. Measurements and Main Results: Overall, the mean values for each urinary parameter spanned a narrow range without significant difference between the five regions. Among {"}metabolic{"} factors, 40{\%} in the SE had hypercalciuria (> 6.25 mmol/d), compared to 35{\%}-43{\%} in other regions, and hyperuricosuria (> 4.2 mmol/d) was found in 16{\%} in the SE versus 17{\%}-19{\%} elsewhere. Among {"}environmental{"} factors, low urine volume ( < 2 L/d) was found in 77{\%} patients in the SE compared to 69{\%}-78{\%} elsewhere, and high sodium was encountered in 27{\%} in the SE versus 24{\%}-29{\%} elsewhere. No differences were noted in occurrence of other abnormal risk factors: hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, low pH, high sulfate, high phosphorus, or low magnesium. Conclusions: Despite expected regional differences in nutritional and environmental influences, the results of this study showed a striking similarity in urinary biochemical risk factor profiles of stone-formers in all five regions of the United States.",
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