Purpose: Current approaches using deformable vector field (DVF) for motion-compensated 4D-cone beam CT (CBCT) reconstruction typically utilize an isotropically smoothed DVF between different respiration phases. Such isotropically smoothed DVF does not work well if sliding motion exists between neighboring organs. This study investigated an anisotropic motion modeling scheme by extracting organ boundary local motions (e.g., sliding) and incorporated them into 4D-CBCT reconstruction to optimize the motion modeling and reconstruction methods. Methods: Initially, a modified simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (mSART) was applied to reconstruct high quality reference phase CBCT using all phase projections. The initial DVFs were precalculated and subsequently updated to achieve the optimized solution. During the DVF update, sliding motion estimation was performed by matching the measured projections to the forward projection of the deformed reference phase CBCT. In this process, each moving organ boundary was first segmented. The normal vectors of the boundary DVF were then extracted and incorporated for further DVF optimization. The regularization term in the objective function adaptively regularizes the DVF by (1) isotopically smoothing the DVF within each organ; (2) smoothing the DVF at boundary along the normal direction; and (3) leaving the tangent direction of boundary DVF unsmoothed (i.e., allowing for sliding motion). A nonlinear conjugate gradient optimizer was used. The algorithm was validated on a digital cubic tube phantom with sliding motion, nonuniform rotational B-spline based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom, and two anonymized patient data. The relative reconstruction error (RE), the motion trajectory's root mean square error (RMSE) together with its maximum error (MaxE), and the Dice coefficient of the lung boundary were calculated to evaluate the algorithm performance. Results: For the cubic tube and NCAT phantom tests, the REs are 10.2% and 7.4% with sliding motion compensation, compared to 13.4% and 8.9% without sliding modeling. The motion trajectory's RMSE and MaxE for NCAT phantom tests are 0.5 and 0.8 mm with sliding motion constraint compared to 3.5 and 7.3 mm without sliding motion modeling. The Dice coefficients for both NCAT phantom and the patients show a consistent trend that sliding motion constraint achieves better similarity for segmented lung boundary compared with the ground truth or patient reference. Conclusions: A sliding motion-compensated 4D-CBCT reconstruction and the motion modeling scheme was developed. Both phantom and patient study demonstrated the improved accuracy and motion modeling accuracy in reconstructed 4D-CBCT.
- deformable vector field
- organ motion
- sliding motion
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging