Objective: This article reviews evidence supporting sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor combination therapy for management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: We conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature focusing on single-pill or fixed-dose combinations of SGLT2 inhibitors and DPP-4 inhibitors available in the United States. Results: SGLT2 inhibitors and DPP-4 inhibitors have complementary mechanisms of action that address several of the underlying pathophysiologic abnormalities present in T2DM without overlapping toxicities. The combination of these 2 agents has several advantages including a low risk of hypoglycemia, the potential for weight loss, the ability to coformulate into a pill with once-daily administration, and the possibility to use with other classes of glucose-lowering agents. Cardiovascular outcomes trials reported to date support the safety of the DPP-4 class and suggest possible cardioprotective effects for SGLT2 inhibitors - at least based on the first reported study that used empagliflozin. Recent clinical evidence shows that SGLT2 inhibitor/DPP-4 inhibitor therapy is an effective combination for T2DM treatment, providing glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reductions of 1.1 to 1.5%, and weight reductions of approximately 2 kg when added to metformin, which is its primary place in therapy. Conclusion: The combination of an SGLT2 inhibitor/DPP-4 inhibitor is a safe and effective treatment choice for patients with T2DM who are unable to obtain adequate glycemic control with metformin therapy, cannot use metformin, or have a higher baseline HbA1c.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism