Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors and Risk of Hyperkalemia in People With Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data From Randomized, Controlled Trials

Brendon L. Neuen, Megumi Oshima, Rajiv Agarwal, Clare Arnott, David Z. Cherney, Robert Edwards, Anna Maria Langkilde, Kenneth W. Mahaffey, Darren K. McGuire, Bruce Neal, Vlado Perkovic, Annpey Pong, Marc S. Sabatine, Itamar Raz, Tadashi Toyama, Christoph Wanner, David C. Wheeler, Stephen D. Wiviott, Bernard Zinman, Hiddo J.L. Heerspink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia increases risk of cardiac arrhythmias and death and limits the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, which improve clinical outcomes in people with chronic kidney disease or systolic heart failure. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of cardiorenal events in people with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk or with chronic kidney disease. However, their effect on hyperkalemia has not been systematically evaluated. METHODS: A meta-analysis was conducted using individual participant data from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical outcome trials with SGLT2 inhibitors in people with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk or with chronic kidney disease in whom serum potassium levels were routinely measured. The primary outcome was time to serious hyperkalemia, defined as central laboratory-determined serum potassium ≥6.0 mmol/L, with other outcomes including investigator-reported hyperkalemia events and hypokalemia (serum potassium ≤3.5 mmol/L). Cox regression analyses were performed to estimate treatment effects from each trial with hazards ratios and corresponding 95% CIs pooled with random-effects models to obtain summary treatment effects, overall and across key subgroups. RESULTS: Results from 6 trials were included comprising 49 875 participants assessing 4 SGLT2 inhibitors. Of these, 1754 participants developed serious hyperkalemia, and an additional 1119 investigator-reported hyperkalemia events were recorded. SGLT2 inhibitors reduced the risk of serious hyperkalemia (hazard ratio, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.76-0.93]), an effect consistent across studies (Pheterogeneity=0.71). The incidence of investigator-reported hyperkalemia was also lower with SGLT2 inhibitors (hazard ratio, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.68-0.93]; Pheterogeneity=0.21). Reductions in serious hyperkalemia were observed across a range of subgroups, including baseline kidney function, history of heart failure, and use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor, diuretic, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. SGLT2 inhibitors did not increase the risk of hypokalemia (hazard ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.94-1.15]; Pheterogeneity=0.42). CONCLUSIONS: SGLT2 inhibitors reduce the risk of serious hyperkalemia in people with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk or with chronic kidney disease without increasing the risk of hypokalemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1460-1470
Number of pages11
JournalCirculation
Volume145
Issue number19
DOIs
StatePublished - May 10 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • chronic
  • diabetes mellitus
  • heart failure
  • hyperkalemia
  • potassium
  • renal insufficiency
  • sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitors
  • type 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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