Chemokines and chemokine receptors are required for T cell trafficking and migration. Recent evidence shows that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and S1PRs are also important for some aspects of T cell migration, but how these two important receptor-ligand systems are integrated and coregulated is not known. In this study, we have investigated CCL19-CCR7 and CXCL12-CXCR4-driven migration of both splenic and peripheral lymph node (PLN) nonactivated and naive T cells, and used both S1P and the S1PR ligand, FTY720, to probe these interactions. The results demonstrate that splenic T cell migration to CCL19 or CXCL12 is enhanced by, but does not require, S1PR stimulation. In contrast, PLN T cell migration to CXCL12, but not CCL19, requires both chemokine and S1PR stimulation, and the requirement for dual receptor stimulation is particularly important for steps involving transendothelial migration. The results also demonstrate that: 1) splenic and PLN nonactivated and naive T cells use different molecular migration mechanisms; 2) CCR7 and CXCR4 stimulation engage different migration mechanisms; and 3) S1P and FTY720 have distinct S1PR agonist and antagonist properties. The results have important implications for understanding naive T cell entry into and egress from peripheral lymphoid organs, and we present a model for how S1P and chemokine receptor signaling may be integrated within a T cell.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy