SREBP-1c and Sp1 Interact to Regulate Transcription of the Gene for Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (GTP) in the Liver

Kaushik Chakravarty, Shwu Yuan Wu, Cheng Ming Chiang, David Samols, Richard W. Hanson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations

Abstract

The sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), as well as SREBP-1a and SREBP-2, inhibit transcription of the gene encoding the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (PEPCK-C). There are two SREBP regulatory elements (SREs) in the PEPCK-C gene promoter (-322 to -313 and -590 to -581). The SRE at -590 overlaps an Sp1 site on the opposite strand of the DNA. These SREs bound SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c with low affinity but the addition of purified upstream stimulatory activity enhanced the binding of SREBP-1 to both of these sites. Mutating these SREs increased both unstimulated (5-fold) and protein kinase A-stimulated transcription (8-27-fold) from the PEPCK-C gene promoter; this was lost when both SREs were mutated. The SRE at -590 differs by a single base pair from the SRE in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene (T in the PEPCK-C gene promoter at -582, compared with an A in the SRE of the gene for the LDL receptor promoter). Introduction of the LDL receptor SRE into the PEPCK.C gene promoter increased SREBP-1c binding and caused a 10-fold enhancement of basal transcription from the promoter, rather than an inhibition as observed with the SRE in the PEPCK-C gene promoter. The T/A change does not alter the binding of Sp1 to its site on the opposite strand of the DNA. Sp1 bound to the promoter independently of SREBP-1c but competed with SREBP-1c for binding. Sp1 does not bind to the SRE at -322. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, using rat hepatocytes, demonstrated that SREBP-1 and Sp1 were associated in vivo with putative regulatory regions corresponding to the SREs in the PEPCK-C gene promoter. We propose that insulin represses transcription of the gene for PEPCK-C by inducing SREBP-1c production in the liver, which interferes with the stimulatory effect of Sp1 at -590 of the PEPCK-C gene promoter.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)15385-15395
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume279
Issue number15
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 9 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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