Infections with Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin continue to be reported, including 2 cases caused by S. aureus isolates with full resistance to vancomycin. This review first outlines the definitions of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) and risk factors for infection. Next, we describe the mechanisms of resistance and methods of laboratory detection of the organisms. Finally, we address infection control and management issues associated with isolation of VISA and VRSA.
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