State laws and regulations addressing third-party reimbursement for infertility treatment: Implications for cancer survivors

Gwendolyn P. Quinn, Susan T. Vadaparampil, Kerri McGowan Lowrey, Shelby Eidson, Caprice Knapp, Orhan Bukulmez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Scopus citations


Objective: To examine codified state policies related to infertility and assess their implications for cancer patients. Lack of insurance is often identified as a barrier to use of fertility preservation (FP) services. Design: None. Setting: A keyword search was developed to identify statutes and administrative regulations of insurance coverage for FP in the United States. Patient(s): N/A Intervention(s): N/A Main Outcome Measure(s): Laws addressing the general population but pertaining to FP were compiled using Lexis-Nexis. Data were analyzed by reviewing the "plain meaning" of the text, legislative/administrative history, and annotated case law. Legal reasoning and common rules of statutory construction and legislative interpretation were used. Result(s): Fifteen states (29.4%) had laws relating to insurance coverage for infertility or in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures and two states (CA and IL) specifically excluded IVF from a mandatory offer of coverage. No state laws or regulations addressed insurance coverage for FP methods specific to cancer patients. Conclusion(s): There is an argument for policies that require coverage for FP for cancer survivors before treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)72-78
Number of pages7
JournalFertility and Sterility
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2011



  • access to care
  • fertility preservation
  • infertility
  • Insurance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Reproductive Medicine

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