Mushroom spines form strong synaptic contacts and are essential for memory storage. We have previously demonstrated that neuronal store-operated calcium entry (nSOC) in hippocampal neurons is regulated by STIM2 protein. This pathway plays a key role in stability of mushroom spines and is compromised in different mice models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Actin was thought to be the sole cytoskeleton compartment presented in dendritic spines, however, recent studies demonstrated that dynamic microtubules with EB3 capped plus-ends transiently enter spines. We showed that STIM2 forms an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-dependent complex with EB3 via Ser-x-Ile-Pro aminoacid motif and that disruption of STIM2-EB3 interaction resulted in loss of mushroom spines in hippocampal neurons. Overexpression of EB3 causes increase of mushroom spines fraction and is able to restore their deficiency in hippocampal neurons obtained from PS1-M146V-KI AD mouse model. STIM2 overexpression failed to restore mushroom dendritic spines after EB3 knockdown, while in contrast EB3 overexpression rescued loss of mushroom spines resulting from STIM2 depletion. We propose that EB3 is involved in regulation of dendritic spines morphology, in part due to its association with STIM2, and that modulation of EB3 expression is a potential way to overcome synaptic loss during AD.
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