The diagnosis of interstitial cystitis is primarily made based on clinical and cystoscopic findings with exclusion of other bladder diseases. Despite all of the efforts at definitive identification, interstitial cystitis lacks universal objective findings. Mast cell activation with associated histamine release has been postulated as an etiological factor leading to the symptom complex associated with interstitial cystitis. To investigate this hypothesis, a 3-step controlled prospective study was conducted. In step 1 reliability of urine histamine assay was critically examined, and the assay was established to be simple, reliable and valid. In step 2 random spot urine histamine levels (basal state) were measured in 25 noninterstitial cystitis and 15 interstitial cystitis patients (22.1 ± 0.95 ng./ml. versus 19.2 ± 1.19 ng./ml.). There was no significant difference in the random urine histamine levels between the 2 groups (p >0.05). In step 3 urine histamine levels were measured before and after hydrodistention (acute stimulation) in 7 noninterstitial cystitis controls and 6 newly diagnosed interstitial cystitis patients under general anesthesia. The urine histamine-to-creatinine ratio was used to correct for the dilutional effect of normal saline used during hydrodistention. The urine histamine-to-creatinine ratios of the control group showed no significant difference before and after hydrodistention. However, the difference in the urine histamine-to-creatinine ratios of the interstitial cystitis group compared to the controls before and after hydrodistention was highly significant (p <0.001). Although measurement of random spot urine histamine alone (basal state) was not found useful to make the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis, measurement of urine histamine before and immediately after hydrodistention (acute stimulation) may become an important objective parameter to assist in the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis.
- bladder diseases
ASJC Scopus subject areas