Cellular stresses inhibit retinoid signaling, but the molecular basis for this phenomenon has not been revealed. Here, we present evidence that retinoid X receptor (RXR) is a substrate for both mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-4 (MKK4/SEK1) and its downstream mediator c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). MKK4/SEK1 and JNK recognized distinct features on RXR in the DE and AB regions, respectively. Phosphorylation by MKK4/SEK1 had profound effects on the biochemical properties of RXR, inhibiting the expression of genes activated by RXR-retinoic acid receptor complexes. Tyr-249 in the RXR DE region was required for the inhibitory effect of MKK4/SEK1. These effects were significantly reduced in MKK4/SEK1-null cells, indicating that MKK4/SEK1 is required for the suppression of retinoid signaling by stress. Findings presented here demonstrafe that MKK4/SEK1 can directly modulate transcription by phosphorylating RXR, a novel MKK4/SEK1 substrate.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|Publication status||Published - Oct 13 2000|
ASJC Scopus subject areas