Structural activation of Mad2 in the mitotic spindle checkpoint: The two-state Mad2 model versus the Mad2 template model

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Abstract

The inheritance of a normal assortment of chromosomes during each cell division relies on a cell-cycle surveillance system called the mitotic spindle checkpoint. The existence of sister chromatids that do not achieve proper bipolar attachment to the mitotic spindle in a cell activates this checkpoint, which inhibits the ubiquitin ligase activity of the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) and delays the onset of anaphase. The mitotic arrest deficiency 2 (Mad2) spindle checkpoint protein inhibits APC/C through binding to its mitotic-specific activator, Cdc20. Binding of Mad2 to Cdc20 involves a large conformational change of Mad2 and requires the Mad1-Mad2 interaction in vivo. Two related but distinct models of Mad1-assisted activation of Mad2, the "two-state Mad2" and the "Mad2 template" models, have been proposed. I review the recent structural, biochemical, and cell biological data on Mad2, discuss the differences between the two models, and propose experiments that test their key principles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)153-157
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Cell Biology
Volume173
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 24 2006

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Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome
M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Anaphase
Spindle Apparatus
Chromatids
Ligases
Ubiquitin
Cell Division
Cell Cycle
Chromosomes
Proteins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology

Cite this

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title = "Structural activation of Mad2 in the mitotic spindle checkpoint: The two-state Mad2 model versus the Mad2 template model",
abstract = "The inheritance of a normal assortment of chromosomes during each cell division relies on a cell-cycle surveillance system called the mitotic spindle checkpoint. The existence of sister chromatids that do not achieve proper bipolar attachment to the mitotic spindle in a cell activates this checkpoint, which inhibits the ubiquitin ligase activity of the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) and delays the onset of anaphase. The mitotic arrest deficiency 2 (Mad2) spindle checkpoint protein inhibits APC/C through binding to its mitotic-specific activator, Cdc20. Binding of Mad2 to Cdc20 involves a large conformational change of Mad2 and requires the Mad1-Mad2 interaction in vivo. Two related but distinct models of Mad1-assisted activation of Mad2, the {"}two-state Mad2{"} and the {"}Mad2 template{"} models, have been proposed. I review the recent structural, biochemical, and cell biological data on Mad2, discuss the differences between the two models, and propose experiments that test their key principles.",
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N2 - The inheritance of a normal assortment of chromosomes during each cell division relies on a cell-cycle surveillance system called the mitotic spindle checkpoint. The existence of sister chromatids that do not achieve proper bipolar attachment to the mitotic spindle in a cell activates this checkpoint, which inhibits the ubiquitin ligase activity of the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) and delays the onset of anaphase. The mitotic arrest deficiency 2 (Mad2) spindle checkpoint protein inhibits APC/C through binding to its mitotic-specific activator, Cdc20. Binding of Mad2 to Cdc20 involves a large conformational change of Mad2 and requires the Mad1-Mad2 interaction in vivo. Two related but distinct models of Mad1-assisted activation of Mad2, the "two-state Mad2" and the "Mad2 template" models, have been proposed. I review the recent structural, biochemical, and cell biological data on Mad2, discuss the differences between the two models, and propose experiments that test their key principles.

AB - The inheritance of a normal assortment of chromosomes during each cell division relies on a cell-cycle surveillance system called the mitotic spindle checkpoint. The existence of sister chromatids that do not achieve proper bipolar attachment to the mitotic spindle in a cell activates this checkpoint, which inhibits the ubiquitin ligase activity of the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) and delays the onset of anaphase. The mitotic arrest deficiency 2 (Mad2) spindle checkpoint protein inhibits APC/C through binding to its mitotic-specific activator, Cdc20. Binding of Mad2 to Cdc20 involves a large conformational change of Mad2 and requires the Mad1-Mad2 interaction in vivo. Two related but distinct models of Mad1-assisted activation of Mad2, the "two-state Mad2" and the "Mad2 template" models, have been proposed. I review the recent structural, biochemical, and cell biological data on Mad2, discuss the differences between the two models, and propose experiments that test their key principles.

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