Structures of human Patched and its complex with native palmitoylated sonic hedgehog

Xiaofeng Qi, Philip Schmiege, Elias Coutavas, Jiawei Wang, Xiaochun Li

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Hedgehog (HH) signalling governs embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis in mammals and other multicellular organisms1–3. Whereas deficient HH signalling leads to birth defects, unrestrained HH signalling is implicated in human cancers2,4–6. N-terminally palmitoylated HH releases the repression of Patched to the oncoprotein smoothened (SMO); however, the mechanism by which HH recognizes Patched is unclear. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of human patched 1 (PTCH1) alone and in complex with the N-terminal domain of ‘native’ sonic hedgehog (native SHH-N has both a C-terminal cholesterol and an N-terminal fatty-acid modification), at resolutions of 3.5 Å and 3.8 Å, respectively. The structure of PTCH1 has internal two-fold pseudosymmetry in the transmembrane core, which features a sterol-sensing domain and two homologous extracellular domains, resembling the architecture of Niemann–Pick C1 (NPC1) protein7. The palmitoylated N terminus of SHH-N inserts into a cavity between the extracellular domains of PTCH1 and dominates the PTCH1–SHH-N interface, which is distinct from that reported for SHH-N co-receptors8. Our biochemical assays show that SHH-N may use another interface, one that is required for its co-receptor binding, to recruit PTCH1 in the absence of a covalently attached palmitate. Our work provides atomic insights into the recognition of the N-terminal domain of HH (HH-N) by PTCH1, offers a structural basis for cooperative binding of HH-N to various receptors and serves as a molecular framework for HH signalling and its malfunction in disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)128-132
Number of pages5
JournalNature
Volume560
Issue number7716
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2 2018

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Hedgehogs
Cryoelectron Microscopy
Palmitates
Oncogene Proteins
Sterols
Embryonic Development
Mammals
Homeostasis
Fatty Acids
Cholesterol

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Structures of human Patched and its complex with native palmitoylated sonic hedgehog. / Qi, Xiaofeng; Schmiege, Philip; Coutavas, Elias; Wang, Jiawei; Li, Xiaochun.

In: Nature, Vol. 560, No. 7716, 02.08.2018, p. 128-132.

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

Qi, Xiaofeng ; Schmiege, Philip ; Coutavas, Elias ; Wang, Jiawei ; Li, Xiaochun. / Structures of human Patched and its complex with native palmitoylated sonic hedgehog. In: Nature. 2018 ; Vol. 560, No. 7716. pp. 128-132.
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abstract = "Hedgehog (HH) signalling governs embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis in mammals and other multicellular organisms1–3. Whereas deficient HH signalling leads to birth defects, unrestrained HH signalling is implicated in human cancers2,4–6. N-terminally palmitoylated HH releases the repression of Patched to the oncoprotein smoothened (SMO); however, the mechanism by which HH recognizes Patched is unclear. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of human patched 1 (PTCH1) alone and in complex with the N-terminal domain of ‘native’ sonic hedgehog (native SHH-N has both a C-terminal cholesterol and an N-terminal fatty-acid modification), at resolutions of 3.5 {\AA} and 3.8 {\AA}, respectively. The structure of PTCH1 has internal two-fold pseudosymmetry in the transmembrane core, which features a sterol-sensing domain and two homologous extracellular domains, resembling the architecture of Niemann–Pick C1 (NPC1) protein7. The palmitoylated N terminus of SHH-N inserts into a cavity between the extracellular domains of PTCH1 and dominates the PTCH1–SHH-N interface, which is distinct from that reported for SHH-N co-receptors8. Our biochemical assays show that SHH-N may use another interface, one that is required for its co-receptor binding, to recruit PTCH1 in the absence of a covalently attached palmitate. Our work provides atomic insights into the recognition of the N-terminal domain of HH (HH-N) by PTCH1, offers a structural basis for cooperative binding of HH-N to various receptors and serves as a molecular framework for HH signalling and its malfunction in disease.",
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N2 - Hedgehog (HH) signalling governs embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis in mammals and other multicellular organisms1–3. Whereas deficient HH signalling leads to birth defects, unrestrained HH signalling is implicated in human cancers2,4–6. N-terminally palmitoylated HH releases the repression of Patched to the oncoprotein smoothened (SMO); however, the mechanism by which HH recognizes Patched is unclear. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of human patched 1 (PTCH1) alone and in complex with the N-terminal domain of ‘native’ sonic hedgehog (native SHH-N has both a C-terminal cholesterol and an N-terminal fatty-acid modification), at resolutions of 3.5 Å and 3.8 Å, respectively. The structure of PTCH1 has internal two-fold pseudosymmetry in the transmembrane core, which features a sterol-sensing domain and two homologous extracellular domains, resembling the architecture of Niemann–Pick C1 (NPC1) protein7. The palmitoylated N terminus of SHH-N inserts into a cavity between the extracellular domains of PTCH1 and dominates the PTCH1–SHH-N interface, which is distinct from that reported for SHH-N co-receptors8. Our biochemical assays show that SHH-N may use another interface, one that is required for its co-receptor binding, to recruit PTCH1 in the absence of a covalently attached palmitate. Our work provides atomic insights into the recognition of the N-terminal domain of HH (HH-N) by PTCH1, offers a structural basis for cooperative binding of HH-N to various receptors and serves as a molecular framework for HH signalling and its malfunction in disease.

AB - Hedgehog (HH) signalling governs embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis in mammals and other multicellular organisms1–3. Whereas deficient HH signalling leads to birth defects, unrestrained HH signalling is implicated in human cancers2,4–6. N-terminally palmitoylated HH releases the repression of Patched to the oncoprotein smoothened (SMO); however, the mechanism by which HH recognizes Patched is unclear. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of human patched 1 (PTCH1) alone and in complex with the N-terminal domain of ‘native’ sonic hedgehog (native SHH-N has both a C-terminal cholesterol and an N-terminal fatty-acid modification), at resolutions of 3.5 Å and 3.8 Å, respectively. The structure of PTCH1 has internal two-fold pseudosymmetry in the transmembrane core, which features a sterol-sensing domain and two homologous extracellular domains, resembling the architecture of Niemann–Pick C1 (NPC1) protein7. The palmitoylated N terminus of SHH-N inserts into a cavity between the extracellular domains of PTCH1 and dominates the PTCH1–SHH-N interface, which is distinct from that reported for SHH-N co-receptors8. Our biochemical assays show that SHH-N may use another interface, one that is required for its co-receptor binding, to recruit PTCH1 in the absence of a covalently attached palmitate. Our work provides atomic insights into the recognition of the N-terminal domain of HH (HH-N) by PTCH1, offers a structural basis for cooperative binding of HH-N to various receptors and serves as a molecular framework for HH signalling and its malfunction in disease.

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