Improving survival rates following pediatric bone marrow transplantation (BMT) will likely result in greater numbers of children progressing to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) because of prior chemotherapy, irradiation, sepsis, and exposure to nephrotoxic agents. Renal transplantation remains the treatment of choice for ESRD; however, the safety of renal transplantation in this unique population is not well established. We report our experience with living related renal transplantation in three pediatric patients with ESRD following prior BMT. Two patients with neuroblastoma and ESRD because of BMT nephropathy, and one patient with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia and ESRD because of immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome. Age at time of BMT ranged from 2 to 7 yr. All patients had stable bone marrow function prior to renal transplantation. Age at renal transplant ranged from 8 to 14 yr. All three patients have been managed with conventional immunosuppression, as no patient received a kidney and BMT from the same donor source. These patients are currently 7 months to 6 yr status post-living related transplant. All have functioning bone marrow and kidney transplants, with serum creatinine levels ranging 0.6-1.2 mg/dL. There have been no episodes of rejection. One patient with a history of grade III skin and grade IV gastrointestinal-graft-vs.-host disease (GI-GVHD) prior to transplantation, had a mild flare of GI-GVHD (grade I) post-renal transplant and is currently asymptomatic. The incidence of opportunistic infection has been comparable with our pediatric renal transplant population without prior BMT. One patient was treated for basal cell carcinoma via wide local excision. Renal transplantation is an excellent option for the treatment of pediatric patients with ESRD following BMT. Short-term results in this small population show promising patient and graft survival, however long-term follow-up is needed. Pre-existing immune system impairment and bone marrow function should be taken into consideration when weighing different immunosuppressive agents for renal transplantation. Patients who have undergone renal transplantation following BMT are at high risk for opportunistic infections and malignancy, and need life-long medical surveillance.
- Bone marrow transplant
- Bone marrow transplant nephropathy
- End-stage renal disease
- Kidney transplant
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health