Background and purpose: Involuntary motion due to swallowing cause inaccurate dose delivery during larynx radiotherapy, a deviation that may be particularly problematic during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The goal of this study was to develop a motion management solution for larynx SBRT using surface imaging. Material and methods: Ten patients were recently treated on a phase II study of larynx SBRT on a LINAC equipped with a surface guidance system. A small region of the immobilization mask was manually cut open to allow surface tracking. Pre-treatment and intra-fractional CBCTs were acquired to verify internal anatomy. Patients were verbally instructed not to swallow during treatment. During treatment delivery, beam hold was initiated by the Motion Management Interface if surface motion exceeded a patient-specific threshold. Patient motion was recorded in log files and analyzed. We also performed phantom studies to assess the theoretical impact of gating on dose delivery. Results: The frequency (6.5 ± 5.2 times per fraction) and duration (3.9 ± 2.5 seconds per swallow) of swallowing varied both between patients and fractions. The magnitude of each swallow showed mean peak amplitude at 5.8 ± 3.8 mm above baseline, mostly in the longitudinal direction. Beam duty cycle was 95.0% ± 7.0% (absolute range: 76–100%), with inefficiency most prominent in the early fractions. The 95th percentile residual motion was reduced from 3.4 mm to 2.3 mm with both verbal instruction and gating. Phantom studies confirmed dose delivery accuracy represented by gamma pass rate was improved by 5% using this approach. Conclusions: Laryngeal motion management using surface imaging is feasible and efficacious. Uncontrolled movement of the larynx was not uncommon during treatment, with gating reducing potential for unplanned dose deviations. Additional research is needed to determine the clinical benefit with this system.
- Motion management
- Surface guidance
- Swallow gating
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging