Surgical Infection Society Guidelines for Total Abdominal Colectomy versus Diverting Loop Ileostomy with Antegrade Intra-Colonic Lavage for the Surgical Management of Severe or Fulminant, Non-Perforated Clostridioides difficile Colitis

Joseph D. Forrester, Kristin P. Colling, Jose J. Diaz, Bradley Faliks, Peter K. Kim, Jeffrey M. Tessier, Jamie Tung, Jared M. Huston

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background:Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) can result in life-threatening illness requiring surgery. Surgical options for managing severe or fulminant, non-perforated C. difficile colitis include total abdominal colectomy with end ileostomy or creation of a diverting loop ileostomy with antegrade vancomycin lavage. Methods: The Surgical Infection Society's Therapeutics and Guidelines Committee convened to develop guidelines for summarizing the current SIS recommendations for total abdominal colectomy versus diverting loop ileostomy with antegrade lavage for severe or fulminant, non-perforated C. difficile colitis. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database were searched for pertinent studies. Severe infection was defined as laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection with leukocytosis (white blood cell count of ≥15,000 cells/mL) or elevated creatinine (serum creatinine level >1.5 mg/dL). Fulminant infection was defined as laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection with hypotension or shock, ileus, or megacolon. Perforation was defined as complete disruption of the colon wall. Total abdominal colectomy was defined as resection of the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon with end ileostomy. For the purpose of the guideline, the terms subtotal colectomy, total abdominal colectomy, and rectal-sparing total colectomy were used interchangeably. Diverting loop ileostomy with antegrade enema was defined as creation of both a diverting loop ileostomy with intra-operative colonic lavage and post-operative antegrade vancomycin unless otherwise specified. Evaluation of the published evidence was performed using the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Using a process of iterative consensus, all committee members voted to accept or reject each recommendation. Results: We recommend that total abdominal colectomy be the procedure of choice for definitive therapy of severe or fulminant, non-perforated C. difficile colitis. In select patients, colon preservation using diverting loop ileostomy with intra-colonic vancomycin may be associated with higher rates of ostomy reversal and restoration of gastrointestinal continuity but may lead to development of recurrent C. difficile colitis. Conclusions: This guideline summarizes the current Surgical Infection Society recommendations regarding use of total abdominal colectomy versus diverting loop ileostomy with antegrade lavage for adults with severe or fulminant, non-perforated C. difficile infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)97-104
Number of pages8
JournalSurgical Infections
Volume23
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2022

Keywords

  • antibiotic agents
  • Clostridioides
  • Clostridium
  • colectomy
  • ileostomy
  • infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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