Patients with cirrhosis of the liver have a very high risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, this group of patients should undergo surveillance to improve mortality. Better tools for stratifying the risk of HCC among patients with cirrhosis are needed. The best strategy for surveillance is the combination of alpha-fetoprotein and ultrasound of the liver every 6 months. This strategy shows a sensitivity of approximately 65% and a specificity of 90%, and importantly, has been shown to improve mortality in these patients. Balancing benefits and harms should be performed when deciding to proceed with surveillance.
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