Synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy (SMART): Superimposing tumor motion on IMRT MLC leaf sequences under realistic delivery conditions

Jun Xu, Nikos Papanikolaou, Chengyu Shi, Steve B. Jiang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Scopus citations


Synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy (SMART) has been proposed to account for tumor motions during radiotherapy in prior work. The basic idea of SMART is to synchronize the moving radiation beam aperture formed by a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) with the tumor motion induced by respiration. In this paper, a two-dimensional (2D) superimposing leaf sequencing method is presented for SMART. A leaf sequence optimization strategy was generated to assure the SMART delivery under realistic delivery conditions. The study of delivery performance using the Varian LINAC and the Millennium DMLC showed that clinical factors such as collimator angle, dose rate, initial phase and machine tolerance affect the delivery accuracy and efficiency. An in-house leaf sequencing software was developed to implement the 2D superimposing leaf sequencing method and optimize the motion-corrected leaf sequence under realistic clinical conditions. The analysis of dynamic log (Dynalog) files showed that optimization of the leaf sequence for various clinical factors can avoid beam hold-offs which break the synchronization of SMART and fail the SMART dose delivery. Through comparison between the simulated delivered fluence map and the planed fluence map, it was shown that the motion-corrected leaf sequence can greatly reduce the dose error.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4993-5007
Number of pages15
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number16
StatePublished - 2009


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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