This article discusses the epidemiology, recognition, screening, and management of six systemic diseases that commonly present with renal manifestations: diabetic nephropathy, lupus nephritis, congestive heart failure, HIV, liver disease, and dysproteinemias. Diabetic nephropathy remains the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the United States. The outlook for patients who have lupus nephritis and HIV-associated nephropathy has improved in the last decade. Kidney disease is common in patients who have advanced liver disease, and creatinine-based methods do not provide an accurate estimation of renal function in this population. Dysproteinemias are associated with protean renal manifestations, and renal disease may be the presenting manifestation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)