Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: Pathogenesis, natural history and prognosis

Siu Hin Wan, Monica Ahluwalia, Jackson J. Liang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is a condition classically characterized by transient apical hypokinesis with preserved basal systolic function in the setting of unobstructed coronary arteries. First described in the early 1990‘s, it was initially thought to be a rare disease. However, TCM has been increasingly reported and described, now with new atypical variants of differing hypokinetic cardiac segments involved. It is also known as apical ballooning syndrome or stress induced cardiomyopathy, reflecting its characteristic imaging finding and underlying pathophysiology. While many cases of TCM present similarly to those of acute coronary syndrome, the hallmark of the syndrome is the lack of myocardial abnormality in a well-defined coronary distribution. Predisposing factors stem from the pathophysiology of this condition, where intense physical or emotional stress triggers catecholamine release, leading to vascular dysfunction and myocardial involvement. Given the transient nature of the syndrome, prognosis is generally favorable compared to other acute cardiac emergencies. However, with greater understanding of the underlying pathogenesis as well as greater recognition of this phenomenon, management has become more sophisticated, evolving from supportive therapy alone to treatment and prevention of potential complications, such as shock, thromboembolism and arrhythmias.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationTakotsubo Cardiomyopathy
Subtitle of host publicationRisk Factors, Management and Long-Term Outlook
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9781634846424
ISBN (Print)9781634846240
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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