Targeted disruption of BMP signaling through type IA receptor (BMPR1A) in osteocyte suppresses SOST and RANKL, leading to dramatic increase in bone mass, bone mineral density and mechanical strength

Nobuhiro Kamiya, Lin Shuxian, Ryosuke Yamaguchi, Matthew Phipps, Olumide Aruwajoye, Naga Suresh Adapala, Hui Yuan, Harry K W Kim, Jian Q. Feng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Recent studies suggest a critical role of osteocytes in controlling skeletal development and bone remodeling although the molecular mechanism is largely unknown. This study investigated BMP signaling in osteocytes by disrupting Bmpr1a under the Dmp1-promoter. The conditional knockout (cKO) mice displayed a striking osteosclerotic phenotype with increased trabecular bone volume, thickness, number, and mineral density as assessed by X-ray and micro-CT. The bone histomorphometry, H&E, and TRAP staining revealed a dramatic increase in trabecular and cortical bone masses but a sharp reduction in osteoclast number. Moreover, there was an increase in BrdU positive osteocytes (2–5-fold) and osteoid volume (~ 4-fold) but a decrease in the bone formation rate (~ 85%) in the cKO bones, indicating a defective mineralization. The SEM analysis revealed poorly formed osteocytes: a sharp increase in cell numbers, a great reduction in cell dendrites, and a remarkable change in the cell distribution pattern. Molecular studies demonstrated a significant decrease in the Sost mRNA levels in bone (> 95%), and the SOST protein levels in serum (~ 85%) and bone matrices. There was a significant increase in the β-catenin (> 3-fold) mRNA levels as well as its target genes Tcf1 (> 6-fold) and Tcf3 (~ 2-fold) in the cKO bones. We also showed a significant decrease in the RANKL levels of serum proteins (~ 65%) and bone mRNA (~ 57%), and a significant increase in the Opg mRNA levels (> 20-fold) together with a significant reduction in the Rankl/Opg ratio (> 95%), which are responsible for a sharp reduction in the cKO osteoclasts. The values of mechanical strength were higher in cKO femora (i.e. max force, displacement, and work failure). These results suggest that loss of BMP signaling specifically in osteocytes dramatically increases bone mass presumably through simultaneous inhibition of RANKL and SOST, leading to osteoclast inhibition and Wnt activation together. Finally, a working hypothesis is proposed to explain how BMPR1A controls bone remodeling by inhibiting cell proliferation and stimulating differentiation. It is reported that RANKL and SOST are abundantly expressed by osteocytes. Thus, BMP signaling through BMPR1A plays important roles in osteocytes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)53-63
Number of pages11
JournalBone
Volume91
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016

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Osteocytes
Bone Density
Bone and Bones
Osteoclasts
Messenger RNA
Bone Remodeling
Catenins
X-Ray Microtomography
Bone Matrix
Bromodeoxyuridine
Dendrites
Osteogenesis
Knockout Mice
Femur
Minerals
Blood Proteins
Cell Count
Cell Proliferation
Staining and Labeling
Phenotype

Keywords

  • BMPR1A
  • Osteocyte
  • Proliferation
  • RANKL
  • SOST/sclerostin
  • Wnt/β-catenin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Histology
  • Physiology

Cite this

Targeted disruption of BMP signaling through type IA receptor (BMPR1A) in osteocyte suppresses SOST and RANKL, leading to dramatic increase in bone mass, bone mineral density and mechanical strength. / Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Shuxian, Lin; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Phipps, Matthew; Aruwajoye, Olumide; Adapala, Naga Suresh; Yuan, Hui; Kim, Harry K W; Feng, Jian Q.

In: Bone, Vol. 91, 01.10.2016, p. 53-63.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Recent studies suggest a critical role of osteocytes in controlling skeletal development and bone remodeling although the molecular mechanism is largely unknown. This study investigated BMP signaling in osteocytes by disrupting Bmpr1a under the Dmp1-promoter. The conditional knockout (cKO) mice displayed a striking osteosclerotic phenotype with increased trabecular bone volume, thickness, number, and mineral density as assessed by X-ray and micro-CT. The bone histomorphometry, H&E, and TRAP staining revealed a dramatic increase in trabecular and cortical bone masses but a sharp reduction in osteoclast number. Moreover, there was an increase in BrdU positive osteocytes (2–5-fold) and osteoid volume (~ 4-fold) but a decrease in the bone formation rate (~ 85{\%}) in the cKO bones, indicating a defective mineralization. The SEM analysis revealed poorly formed osteocytes: a sharp increase in cell numbers, a great reduction in cell dendrites, and a remarkable change in the cell distribution pattern. Molecular studies demonstrated a significant decrease in the Sost mRNA levels in bone (> 95{\%}), and the SOST protein levels in serum (~ 85{\%}) and bone matrices. There was a significant increase in the β-catenin (> 3-fold) mRNA levels as well as its target genes Tcf1 (> 6-fold) and Tcf3 (~ 2-fold) in the cKO bones. We also showed a significant decrease in the RANKL levels of serum proteins (~ 65{\%}) and bone mRNA (~ 57{\%}), and a significant increase in the Opg mRNA levels (> 20-fold) together with a significant reduction in the Rankl/Opg ratio (> 95{\%}), which are responsible for a sharp reduction in the cKO osteoclasts. The values of mechanical strength were higher in cKO femora (i.e. max force, displacement, and work failure). These results suggest that loss of BMP signaling specifically in osteocytes dramatically increases bone mass presumably through simultaneous inhibition of RANKL and SOST, leading to osteoclast inhibition and Wnt activation together. Finally, a working hypothesis is proposed to explain how BMPR1A controls bone remodeling by inhibiting cell proliferation and stimulating differentiation. It is reported that RANKL and SOST are abundantly expressed by osteocytes. Thus, BMP signaling through BMPR1A plays important roles in osteocytes.",
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AU - Phipps, Matthew

AU - Aruwajoye, Olumide

AU - Adapala, Naga Suresh

AU - Yuan, Hui

AU - Kim, Harry K W

AU - Feng, Jian Q.

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