Summary Nerve transection injuries can result in painful neuromas that adversely affect patient recovery. This is especially significant following amputation surgeries in the setting of prosthetic wear and function. Targeted Muscle Reinnervation and Regenerative Peripheral Nerve Interface (RPNI) are 2 modern surgical techniques that provide neuromuscular targets for these transected nerve endings to reinnervate. These strategies have been previously shown to reduce phantom limb pain, residual limb pain, and neuroma-related pain.1,2,7,11Two recent articles described technical adaptations of combining targeted muscle reinnervation and RPNI to create a hybrid procedure.3,12In this article, we propose a different modification of targeted muscle reinnervation and RPNI, where the transected nerve stump is coapted to a recipient unit consisting of an intact distal nerve branch with its associated muscle graft. We called this recipient unit a targeted peripheral nerve interface because it contains a distal nerve branch for nerve coaptation and can guide axonal regeneration from the donor nerve to its target muscle graft. We theorize that targeted peripheral nerve interface may lead to more even distribution of regenerating axons with potentially less pain and stronger signals for prosthetic control when compared with standard RPNI.
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