Technical Note: Fast respiratory motion estimation using sorted singles without unlist processing: A feasibility study

Jaewon Yang, Mehdi Khalighi, Thomas A. Hope, Karen Ordovas, Youngho Seo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


PURPOSE: The study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of fast respiratory motion estimation using singles data available as a sorted format in list-mode files acquired in an integrated positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) system for a proof-of-concept.

METHODS: The derivation of singles-driven respiratory motion (SDRM) is enabled by singles recorded and binned by second for each detector crystal in PET list-mode data acquired in a SIGNA PET/MR. The proposed method is to derive a SDRM trace by summing up all singles from all detectors through the PET data acquisition. To assess the feasibility of SDRM for data-driven gating (DDG), SDRM traces were derived from the list-mode data acquired in five liver-focused 68 Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/MRI scans, and compared with the traces derived from bellows (pressure belt). Pearson's correlation coefficients and trigger time differences at peak-inhalation phases between SDRM and bellows traces were measured for quantitative evaluation.

RESULTS: The method presented the average processing time of 4.2 ± 0.42 s (range: 3.9 ~ 4.7 s) for the derivation of SDRM traces. The majority of the time was spent for reading singles data from a list-mode file (3.1 ± 0.40 s, range: 2.7 ~ 3.7s). On average, the correlation coefficient of SDRM and bellows traces was 0.69 ± 0.16 (range: 0.41 ~ 0.80) and the time offset of SDRM-driven triggers from bellows-driven triggers was 0.25 ± 0.39 s (range: -0.85 ~ 2.69 s later than bellows triggers), demonstrating the similar patterns and phases of SDRM and bellows traces.

CONCLUSIONS: We introduced PET singles-driven respiratory motion (SDRM) estimation as a proof-of-principle, using sorted singles ready for immediate processing in list-mode data. The results demonstrated the feasibility of SDRM and its potential use for gated PET with fast processing time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1632-1637
Number of pages6
JournalMedical physics
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • data-driven gating
  • respiratory motion
  • singles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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