Temporal trends in and factors associated with bleeding complications among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A report from the national cardiovascular data CathPCI registry

Sumeet Subherwal, Eric D. Peterson, David Dai, Laine Thomas, John C. Messenger, Ying Xian, Ralph G. Brindis, Dmitriy N. Feldman, Shaun Senter, Lloyd W. Klein, Steven P. Marso, Matthew T. Roe, Sunil V. Rao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

92 Scopus citations


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine temporal trends in post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) bleeding among patients with elective PCI, unstable angina (UA)/non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Background: The impact of bleeding avoidance strategies on post-PCI bleeding rates over time is unknown. Methods: Using the CathPCI Registry, we examined temporal trends in post-PCI bleeding from 2005 to 2009 among patients with elective PCI (n = 599,524), UA/NSTEMI (n = 836,103), and STEMI (n = 267,632). We quantified the linear time trend in bleeding using 3 sequential logistic regression models: 1) clinical factors; 2) clinical + vascular access strategies (femoral vs. radial, use of closure devices); and 3) clinical, vascular strategies + antithrombotic treatments (anticoagulant ± glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor [GPI]). Changes in the odds ratio for time trend in bleeding were compared using bootstrapping and converted to risk ratio. Results: An approximate 20% reduction in post-PCI bleeding was seen (elective PCI: 1.4% to 1.1%; UA/NSTEMI: 2.3% to 1.8; STEMI: 4.9% to 4.5%). Radial approach remained low (<3%), and closure device use increased marginally from 44% to 49%. Bivalirudin use increased (17% to 30%), whereas any heparin + GPI decreased (41% to 28%). There was a significant 6% to 8% per year reduction in annual bleeding risk in UA/NSTEMI and elective PCI, but not in STEMI. Antithrombotic strategies were associated with roughly half of the reduction in annual bleeding risk: change in risk ratio from 7.5% to 4% for elective PCI, and 5.7% to 2.8% for UA/NSTEMI (both p <0.001). Conclusions: The nearly 20% reduction in post-PCI bleeding over time was largely due to temporal changes in antithrombotic strategies. Further reductions in bleeding complications may be possible as bleeding avoidance strategies evolve, especially in STEMI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1861-1869
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - May 22 2012



  • bleeding
  • catheterization
  • outcomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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