Test–retest reliability and validity of a single-item Self-reported Family Happiness Scale in Hong Kong Chinese: findings from Hong Kong Jockey Club FAMILY Project

Chen Shen, Man Ping Wang, Henry C.Y. Ho, Alice Wan, Sunita M. Stewart, Kasisomayajula Viswanath, Sophia Siu Chee Chan, Tai Hing Lam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations


Purpose: Family happiness is one major theme of family well-being in Chinese culture. We investigated the reliability and validity of the single-item Self-reported Family Happiness Scale (SFHS-1) with the score of 0–10, based on two studies in Hong Kong Chinese. Methods: Study 1 was a territory-wide population-based telephone survey (n = 4038) conducted in 2016. Study 2 was a community-based family intervention program conducted during 2012–2013 (n = 1261) to enhance family communication and well-being. Test–retest reliability of the SFHS-1 was assessed over 1 month in Study 2. Family APGAR (Adaption, Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve) Scale, Family Communication Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale, 12-item Short Form Health Survey Version 2, and 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire were used to assess the convergent and discriminant validities of the SFHS-1 in both studies. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the incremental validity by identifying the additional contribution of the SFHS-1 score in predicting subjective happiness. Results: The 1-month test–retest reliability assessed by intraclass correlation was 0.76. Family happiness was moderately to strongly correlated with family function, family communication, subjective happiness, mental health-related quality of life and depression, but weakly correlated with physical health-related quality of life. Furthermore, the score of the SFHS-1 added predictive power to mental health-related quality of life and depression in assessing subjective happiness. Conclusions: Our results have shown the SFHS-1 as a reliable and valid measurement of family happiness in Hong Kong Chinese, suggesting SFHS-1 is highly practicable for future large epidemiological and community-based intervention studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalQuality of Life Research
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018



  • Family happiness
  • Quality of life
  • Reliability
  • Single-item scale
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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