Optimal stress signaling by Hypoxia Inducible Factor 2 (HIF-2) during low oxygen states or hypoxia requires coupled actions of a specific coactivator/lysine acetyltransferase, Creb binding protein (CBP), and a specific deacetylase, Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). We recently reported that acetylation of HIF-2 by CBP also requires a specific acetyl CoA generator, acetate-dependent acetyl CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2). In this study, we demonstrate that ACSS2/HIF-2 signaling is active not only during hypoxia, but also during glucose deprivation. Acetate levels increase during stress and coincide with maximal HIF-2α acetylation and CBP/HIF-2α complex formation. Exogenous acetate induces HIF-2α acetylation, CBP/HIF-2α complex formation, and HIF-2 signaling. ACSS2 and HIF-2 are required for maximal colony formation, proliferation, migration, and invasion during stress. Acetate also stimulates flank tumor growth and metastasis in mice in an ACSS2 and HIF-2 dependent manner. Thus, ACSS2/CBP/SIRT1/HIF-2 signaling links nutrient sensing and stress signaling with cancer growth and progression in mammals.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)