The association between use of spermicides or male condoms and major structural birth defects

M. Shayne Gallaway, D. Kim Waller, Mark A. Canfield, Angela Scheuerle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Women may become pregnant while using contraceptives. Commonly used contraceptives containing spermicides may or may not be associated with an increased occurrence of structural birth defects. Study Design: Utilizing data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, we assessed maternal reports of spermicide and male condom use 1 to 3 months following conception among case (n=11,050) and control (n=4723) mothers. We assessed the association between spermicide use and 27 types of birth defects and that between condom use and 32 types of birth defects. Results: Maternal spermicide use during the first 3 months following conception was associated with a significant increase in the occurrence of only 1 of 27 birth defects, perimembranous ventricular septal defects (adjusted odds ratio=2.40, 95% confidence interval=1.25-4.62). There was no significant association between maternal use of male condoms during the first 3 months following conception and any of 32 types of birth defects. Conclusions: The increased occurrence of perimembranous ventricular septal defects among spermicide users may be real or may be a chance finding. Overall, the findings are consistent with those of most previous studies that observed no increased risk for birth defects among spermicide users.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)422-429
Number of pages8
JournalContraception
Volume80
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2009

Keywords

  • Birth defects
  • Case-control study
  • Congenital anomaly
  • Contraception
  • Male condoms
  • Spermicides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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