PURPOSE: The clinician treating patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) needs to balance a variety of factors when making treatment decisions. In addition to the patient's urologic symptoms and urodynamic findings, other issues that may influence management options of the lower urinary tract include cognition, hand function, type of neurologic disease, mobility, bowel function/management, and social and caregiver support. This Guideline allows the clinician to understand the options available to treat patients, understand the findings that can be seen in NLUTD, and appreciate which options are best for each individual patient. This allows for decisions to be made with the patient, in a shared decision-making manner, such that the patient's quality of life can be optimized with respect to their bladder management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive search for studies assessing patients undergoing evaluation, surveillance, management, or follow-up for NLUTD was conducted from January 2001 through October 2017 and was rerun in February 2021 to capture newer literature. The primary search returned 20,496 unique citations. Following a title and abstract screen, full texts were obtained for 3,036 studies. During full-text review, studies were primarily excluded for not meeting the PICO criteria. One hundred eight-four primary literature studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the evidence base. RESULTS: This guideline was developed to inform clinicians on the proper evaluation, diagnosis, and risk stratification of patients with NLUTD and the non-surgical and surgical treatment options available. Additional statements on urinary tract infection and autonomic dysreflexia were developed to guide the clinician. This Guideline is for adult patients with NLUTD and pediatric NLUTD will not be discussed. CONCLUSIONS: NLUTD patients should be risk-stratified as either low-, moderate-, high-, or unknown-risk. After diagnosis and stratification, patients should be monitored according to their level of risk at regular intervals. Patients who experience new or worsening signs and symptoms should be reevaluated and risk stratification should be repeated.
- autonomic dysreflexia
- intermittent catheterization
- neurogenic bladder (or neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction)
- urinary tract infection
ASJC Scopus subject areas