The biphasic mechanism of blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

A physiologic comparison of active compression-decompression and high-impulse manual external cardiac massage

Kelly J. Tucker, Junaid Khan, Ahamed Idris, Michael A. Savitt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Study objective: Dismal survival in patients receiving standard manual CPR provided the rationale for the investigation of alternate methods of closed-chest circulatory support. Active compression-decompression (ACD) and high-impulse CPR are alternatives to standard manual CPR. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ACD CPR provides superior cardiopulmonary hemodynamics due to an active decompression phase when compared with high-impulse manual CPR. Participants: Hemodynamics were studied during ACD and high-impulse CPR in eight adult beagles. Design: Four animals were chronically instrumented and four were studied acutely. In an additional four animals, ACD was compared with sham ACD CPR. Each CPR technique was performed sequentially for 2 minutes, in random order, at a rate of 120, 50% duty cycle, and 1.5 to 2.0 in of compression depth. Measurements obtained included aortic, right atrial, left ventricular, and coronary perfusion pressures (in mm Hg); pulmonary artery flow; and left ventricular dimension. Results: ACD maximized cardiopulmonary hemodynamics, including coronary perfusion pressure and stroke volume, compared with both high-impulse manual and sham ACD CPR. ACD CPR also increased left ventricular pressure change per unit time during decompression, and these changes correlated well with left ventricular volume changes. Conclusion: In the intact dog, ACD CPR generates physiologically and statistically superior hemodynamics when compared with high-impulse manual CPR. Improved blood flow seems to be related to more efficient ventricular filling and emptying. These findings emphasize the biphasic nature of CPR and the importance of active decompression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)895-906
Number of pages12
JournalAnnals of Emergency Medicine
Volume24
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1994

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Heart Massage
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Decompression
Hemodynamics
Perfusion
Pressure
Ventricular Pressure
Stroke Volume

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine

Cite this

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title = "The biphasic mechanism of blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A physiologic comparison of active compression-decompression and high-impulse manual external cardiac massage",
abstract = "Study objective: Dismal survival in patients receiving standard manual CPR provided the rationale for the investigation of alternate methods of closed-chest circulatory support. Active compression-decompression (ACD) and high-impulse CPR are alternatives to standard manual CPR. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ACD CPR provides superior cardiopulmonary hemodynamics due to an active decompression phase when compared with high-impulse manual CPR. Participants: Hemodynamics were studied during ACD and high-impulse CPR in eight adult beagles. Design: Four animals were chronically instrumented and four were studied acutely. In an additional four animals, ACD was compared with sham ACD CPR. Each CPR technique was performed sequentially for 2 minutes, in random order, at a rate of 120, 50{\%} duty cycle, and 1.5 to 2.0 in of compression depth. Measurements obtained included aortic, right atrial, left ventricular, and coronary perfusion pressures (in mm Hg); pulmonary artery flow; and left ventricular dimension. Results: ACD maximized cardiopulmonary hemodynamics, including coronary perfusion pressure and stroke volume, compared with both high-impulse manual and sham ACD CPR. ACD CPR also increased left ventricular pressure change per unit time during decompression, and these changes correlated well with left ventricular volume changes. Conclusion: In the intact dog, ACD CPR generates physiologically and statistically superior hemodynamics when compared with high-impulse manual CPR. Improved blood flow seems to be related to more efficient ventricular filling and emptying. These findings emphasize the biphasic nature of CPR and the importance of active decompression.",
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