Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which arises from the renal tubular epithelial cells, accounts for more than 90% of primary renal tumors in adults. This article reviews the current literature on RCC, including the new histologic subtypes that were included in the latest World Health Organization classification. It also reviews the conventional histopathologic prognostic parameters, potential prognostic biomarkers, and molecular profiling of RCC. Evolving understanding of genetics, coupled with morphologic and immunophenotypic characteristics, should enable more precise categorization of RCCs for diagnosis and clinical behavior and, hence, better stratification of patients for the most beneficial treatment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas