The Clinical Significance of Infolded Limbus on Postreduction Arthrogram in Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

William Z. Morris, Sai Chilakapati, Sean A. Hinds, John A. Herring, Harry K.W. Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether presence of an infolded limbus on hip arthrogram at index closed reduction was associated with increased residual dysplasia or secondary surgery. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent closed reduction for dysplasia of the hip with a minimum 2-year follow-up between 1980 and 2016. Demographic data was obtained including the age at reduction and severity of dislocation based on the International Hip Dysplasia Institute (IHDI) classification. Arthrograms performed at time of closed reduction were separately reviewed by 3 fellowship-trained pediatric orthopaedic surgeons to evaluate for an infolded limbus. The primary radiographic outcome was acetabular indices at 2 and 4 years postreduction. We also assessed the presence of avascular necrosis and rate of secondary reconstructive surgery for residual dysplasia. Results: A total of 182 hips in 165 patients underwent closed reduction at a mean age of 9.8±4.5 mo and were followed a mean of 9.0±4.9 y. An infolded limbus was identified in 20.3% (37/182) hips with substantial agreement among the 3 graders (Fleiss κ=0.75). The frequency of labral infolding increased with the severity of dislocation (8.8%% of IHDI II, 26.7% IHDI III, and 25.0% of IHDI IV hips; P=0.03). Hips with infolded limbus were older at reduction (12.4±5.3 vs. 9.2±5.8 mo, P=0.001). The mean acetabular index was higher in hips with infolded limbus than hips without at 2 years postreduction (34.8±4.8 vs. 32.6±5.8 degrees, respectively; P=0.04). However, multivariate analysis revealed that only the severity of dislocation predicted dysplasia at 2 years postreduction. No significant difference in acetabular index was seen at 4 years postreduction (27.2±7.4 vs. 25.4±6.5 degrees, P=0.24). There was no difference in avascular necrosis between groups (P=0.74). There was no difference in rate of secondary surgery between hips with labral infolding and those without (35% vs. 30%, respectively; P=0.52). Conclusions: An infolded limbus was more common in older patients with more severe dislocations. However, it is not associated with increased residual dysplasia or secondary surgery and may have limited utility in decision-making during closed reduction. Level of Evidence: Level II - prognostic study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)309-314
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Pediatric Orthopaedics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2022


  • arthrogram
  • developmental dysplasia of the hip
  • hip dysplasia
  • inverted limbus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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