The cyclin kinase inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1) limits glomerular epithelial cell proliferation in experimental glomerulonephritis

Kim Yoon-Goo, Charles E. Alpers, James Brugarolas, Richard J. Johnson, William G. Couser, Stuart J. Shankland

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Abstract

Background. During glomerulogenesis, visceral glomerular epithelial cells (VECs) exit the cell cycle and become terminally differentiated and quiescent. In contrast to other resident glomerular cells, VECs undergo little if any proliferation in response to injury. However, the mechanisms for this remain unclear. Cell proliferation is controlled by cell-cycle regulatory proteins where the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip1,WAF1) (p21) inhibits cell proliferation and is required for differentiation of many nonrenal cell types. Methods. To test the hypothesis that p21 is required to maintain a differentiated and quiescent VEC phenotype, experimental glomerulonephritis was induced in p21 knockout (-/-) and p21 wild-type (+/+) mice with antiglomerular antibody. DNA synthesis (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, bromodeoxyuridine staining), VEC proliferation (multilayers of cells in Bowman's space), matrix accumulation (periodic acid-Schiff, silver staining), apoptosis (TUNEL), and renal function (serum urea nitrogen) were studied on days 5 and 14 (N = 6 per time point). VECs were identified by location, morphology, ezrin staining, and electron microscopy. VEC differentiation was measured by staining for Wilms' tumor-1 gene. Results. Kidneys from unmanipulated p21-/- mice were histologically normal and did not have increased DNA synthesis, suggesting that p21 was not required for the induction of VEC terminal differentiation. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen and bromodeoxyuridine staining was increased 4.3- and 3.3-fold, respectively, in p21-/- mice with glomerulonephritis (P < 0.0001 vs. p21+/+ mice). At each time point, VEC proliferation was also increased in nephritic p21-/- mice (P < 0.0001 vs. p21+/+ mice). VEC re-entry into the cell cycle was associated with the loss of Wilms' tumor-1 gene staining. Nephritic p21-/- mice had increased extracellular matrix protein accumulation and apoptosis and decreased renal function (serum urea nitrogen) compared with p21+/+ mice (P < 0.001). Conclusion. These results show that the cyclin kinase inhibitor p21 is not required by VECs to attain a terminally differentiated VEC phenotype. However, the loss of p21, in disease states, is associated with VEC re-entry into the cell cycle and the development of a dedifferentiated proliferative phenotype.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2349-2361
Number of pages13
JournalKidney International
Volume55
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1999

Fingerprint

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
Podocytes
Glomerulonephritis
Epithelial Cells
Cell Proliferation
Staining and Labeling
Kidney
Wilms' Tumor Genes
Cell Cycle
Wilms Tumor
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Bromodeoxyuridine
Phenotype
Urea
Cell Differentiation
Nitrogen
Apoptosis
Cell Cycle Proteins
Silver Staining
Periodic Acid

Keywords

  • Cell cycle
  • Cyclin dependent kinase
  • Glomerulus
  • Injury
  • Kidney
  • p21
  • Podocyte
  • Visceral glomerular epithelial cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

Cite this

The cyclin kinase inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1) limits glomerular epithelial cell proliferation in experimental glomerulonephritis. / Yoon-Goo, Kim; Alpers, Charles E.; Brugarolas, James; Johnson, Richard J.; Couser, William G.; Shankland, Stuart J.

In: Kidney International, Vol. 55, No. 6, 1999, p. 2349-2361.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yoon-Goo, Kim ; Alpers, Charles E. ; Brugarolas, James ; Johnson, Richard J. ; Couser, William G. ; Shankland, Stuart J. / The cyclin kinase inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1) limits glomerular epithelial cell proliferation in experimental glomerulonephritis. In: Kidney International. 1999 ; Vol. 55, No. 6. pp. 2349-2361.
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abstract = "Background. During glomerulogenesis, visceral glomerular epithelial cells (VECs) exit the cell cycle and become terminally differentiated and quiescent. In contrast to other resident glomerular cells, VECs undergo little if any proliferation in response to injury. However, the mechanisms for this remain unclear. Cell proliferation is controlled by cell-cycle regulatory proteins where the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip1,WAF1) (p21) inhibits cell proliferation and is required for differentiation of many nonrenal cell types. Methods. To test the hypothesis that p21 is required to maintain a differentiated and quiescent VEC phenotype, experimental glomerulonephritis was induced in p21 knockout (-/-) and p21 wild-type (+/+) mice with antiglomerular antibody. DNA synthesis (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, bromodeoxyuridine staining), VEC proliferation (multilayers of cells in Bowman's space), matrix accumulation (periodic acid-Schiff, silver staining), apoptosis (TUNEL), and renal function (serum urea nitrogen) were studied on days 5 and 14 (N = 6 per time point). VECs were identified by location, morphology, ezrin staining, and electron microscopy. VEC differentiation was measured by staining for Wilms' tumor-1 gene. Results. Kidneys from unmanipulated p21-/- mice were histologically normal and did not have increased DNA synthesis, suggesting that p21 was not required for the induction of VEC terminal differentiation. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen and bromodeoxyuridine staining was increased 4.3- and 3.3-fold, respectively, in p21-/- mice with glomerulonephritis (P < 0.0001 vs. p21+/+ mice). At each time point, VEC proliferation was also increased in nephritic p21-/- mice (P < 0.0001 vs. p21+/+ mice). VEC re-entry into the cell cycle was associated with the loss of Wilms' tumor-1 gene staining. Nephritic p21-/- mice had increased extracellular matrix protein accumulation and apoptosis and decreased renal function (serum urea nitrogen) compared with p21+/+ mice (P < 0.001). Conclusion. These results show that the cyclin kinase inhibitor p21 is not required by VECs to attain a terminally differentiated VEC phenotype. However, the loss of p21, in disease states, is associated with VEC re-entry into the cell cycle and the development of a dedifferentiated proliferative phenotype.",
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T1 - The cyclin kinase inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1) limits glomerular epithelial cell proliferation in experimental glomerulonephritis

AU - Yoon-Goo, Kim

AU - Alpers, Charles E.

AU - Brugarolas, James

AU - Johnson, Richard J.

AU - Couser, William G.

AU - Shankland, Stuart J.

PY - 1999

Y1 - 1999

N2 - Background. During glomerulogenesis, visceral glomerular epithelial cells (VECs) exit the cell cycle and become terminally differentiated and quiescent. In contrast to other resident glomerular cells, VECs undergo little if any proliferation in response to injury. However, the mechanisms for this remain unclear. Cell proliferation is controlled by cell-cycle regulatory proteins where the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip1,WAF1) (p21) inhibits cell proliferation and is required for differentiation of many nonrenal cell types. Methods. To test the hypothesis that p21 is required to maintain a differentiated and quiescent VEC phenotype, experimental glomerulonephritis was induced in p21 knockout (-/-) and p21 wild-type (+/+) mice with antiglomerular antibody. DNA synthesis (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, bromodeoxyuridine staining), VEC proliferation (multilayers of cells in Bowman's space), matrix accumulation (periodic acid-Schiff, silver staining), apoptosis (TUNEL), and renal function (serum urea nitrogen) were studied on days 5 and 14 (N = 6 per time point). VECs were identified by location, morphology, ezrin staining, and electron microscopy. VEC differentiation was measured by staining for Wilms' tumor-1 gene. Results. Kidneys from unmanipulated p21-/- mice were histologically normal and did not have increased DNA synthesis, suggesting that p21 was not required for the induction of VEC terminal differentiation. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen and bromodeoxyuridine staining was increased 4.3- and 3.3-fold, respectively, in p21-/- mice with glomerulonephritis (P < 0.0001 vs. p21+/+ mice). At each time point, VEC proliferation was also increased in nephritic p21-/- mice (P < 0.0001 vs. p21+/+ mice). VEC re-entry into the cell cycle was associated with the loss of Wilms' tumor-1 gene staining. Nephritic p21-/- mice had increased extracellular matrix protein accumulation and apoptosis and decreased renal function (serum urea nitrogen) compared with p21+/+ mice (P < 0.001). Conclusion. These results show that the cyclin kinase inhibitor p21 is not required by VECs to attain a terminally differentiated VEC phenotype. However, the loss of p21, in disease states, is associated with VEC re-entry into the cell cycle and the development of a dedifferentiated proliferative phenotype.

AB - Background. During glomerulogenesis, visceral glomerular epithelial cells (VECs) exit the cell cycle and become terminally differentiated and quiescent. In contrast to other resident glomerular cells, VECs undergo little if any proliferation in response to injury. However, the mechanisms for this remain unclear. Cell proliferation is controlled by cell-cycle regulatory proteins where the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip1,WAF1) (p21) inhibits cell proliferation and is required for differentiation of many nonrenal cell types. Methods. To test the hypothesis that p21 is required to maintain a differentiated and quiescent VEC phenotype, experimental glomerulonephritis was induced in p21 knockout (-/-) and p21 wild-type (+/+) mice with antiglomerular antibody. DNA synthesis (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, bromodeoxyuridine staining), VEC proliferation (multilayers of cells in Bowman's space), matrix accumulation (periodic acid-Schiff, silver staining), apoptosis (TUNEL), and renal function (serum urea nitrogen) were studied on days 5 and 14 (N = 6 per time point). VECs were identified by location, morphology, ezrin staining, and electron microscopy. VEC differentiation was measured by staining for Wilms' tumor-1 gene. Results. Kidneys from unmanipulated p21-/- mice were histologically normal and did not have increased DNA synthesis, suggesting that p21 was not required for the induction of VEC terminal differentiation. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen and bromodeoxyuridine staining was increased 4.3- and 3.3-fold, respectively, in p21-/- mice with glomerulonephritis (P < 0.0001 vs. p21+/+ mice). At each time point, VEC proliferation was also increased in nephritic p21-/- mice (P < 0.0001 vs. p21+/+ mice). VEC re-entry into the cell cycle was associated with the loss of Wilms' tumor-1 gene staining. Nephritic p21-/- mice had increased extracellular matrix protein accumulation and apoptosis and decreased renal function (serum urea nitrogen) compared with p21+/+ mice (P < 0.001). Conclusion. These results show that the cyclin kinase inhibitor p21 is not required by VECs to attain a terminally differentiated VEC phenotype. However, the loss of p21, in disease states, is associated with VEC re-entry into the cell cycle and the development of a dedifferentiated proliferative phenotype.

KW - Cell cycle

KW - Cyclin dependent kinase

KW - Glomerulus

KW - Injury

KW - Kidney

KW - p21

KW - Podocyte

KW - Visceral glomerular epithelial cells

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