The dapagliflozin and prevention of adverse outcomes in chronic kidney disease (DAPA-CKD) trial: Baseline characteristics

David C. Wheeler, Bergur V. Stefansson, Mikhail Batiushin, Oleksandr Bilchenko, David Z.I. Cherney, Glenn M. Chertow, Walter Douthat, Jamie P. Dwyer, Elizabeth Escudero, Roberto Pecoits-Filho, Hans Furuland, José Luis Górriz, Tom Greene, Hermann Haller, Fan Fan Hou, Shin Wook Kang, Rey Isidto, Dinesh Khullar, Patrick B. Mark, John J.V. McMurrayNaoki Kashihara, Michal Nowicki, Frederik Persson, Ricardo Correa-Rotter, Peter Rossing, Robert D. Toto, Kausik Umanath, Pham van Bui, István Wittmann, Magnus Lindberg, C. David Sjöström, Anna Maria Langkilde, Hiddo J.L. Heerspink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background. The Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease (DAPA-CKD; NCT03036150) trial was designed to assess the effect of the sodium–glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin on kidney and cardiovascular events in participants with CKD with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D). This analysis reports the baseline characteristics of those recruited, comparing them with those enrolled in other trials. Methods. In DAPA-CKD, 4304 participants with a urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) >200 mg/g and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 25 and 75 mL/min/ 1.73 m2 were randomized to dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily or placebo. Mean eGFR was 43.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 and median UACR was 949 mg/g (108 mg/mmol). Results. Overall, 2906 participants (68%) had a diagnosis of T2D and of these, 396 had CKD ascribed to a cause other than diabetes. The most common causes of CKD after diabetes (n ¼ 2510) were ischaemic/hypertensive nephropathy (n ¼ 687) and chronic glomerulonephritis (n ¼ 695), of which immunoglobulin A nephropathy (n ¼ 270) was the most common. A total of 4174 participants (97%) were receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, 1882 (43.7%) diuretics, 229 (5.3%) mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and 122 (2.8%) glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists. In contrast to the Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE), the DAPA-CKD trial enrolled participants with CKD due to diabetes and to causes other than diabetes. The mean eGFR of participants in the DAPA-CKD trial was 13.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 lower than in CREDENCE, similar to that in the Finerenone in Reducing Kidney Failure and Disease Progression in DKD (FIDELIO-DKD) trial and the Study Of diabetic Nephropathy with AtRasentan (SONAR). Conclusions. Participants with a wide range of underlying kidney diseases receiving renin–angiotensin system blocking therapy have been enrolled in the DAPA-CKD trial. The trial will examine the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin in participants with CKD Stages 2–4 and increased albuminuria, with and without T2D.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1700-1711
Number of pages12
JournalNephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Volume35
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2020

Keywords

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Dapagliflozin
  • Randomized controlled clinical trial
  • Sodium–glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation

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